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149 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bordeaux AC Hierarchy
Three levels:
Generic (e.g., AC Bordeaux)
District (e.g., Haut-Medoc, Entre-Deux-Mers)
Commune (e.g., St-Estephe, Pauillac)
AC Bordeaux
Max yield 55 hl/ha red, 65 hl/ha white.
Min. 10% abv red, Min. 10.5% abv white.
Reds, whites, rose
St.-Émilion ACs
Two ACs: St.-Émilion and St-Émilion Grand Cru.

St.-Émilion Grand Cru has 3 levels:

1(&2): St.-Émilion Premier Grand Cru Classé-13 in total, split into A & B

3. St.-Émilion Grand Cru Classé

Classification re-visited every 10 years.

St.-Emilion AC is min 10.5% abv, 45 hL/ha; St.-Emilion Grand Cru AC is min 11.0% abv, 40 hL/ha.
St.-Émilion Satellite ACs
Sauternes Look-Alikes
Cerons, Cadillac, Loupiac, Ste-Croix-du-Mont. Much lighter in style and much cheaper. (edit for regions)
Types of wine that may be produced under Bordeaux AC
May come from any AOC vineyard in the entire Gironde.
-Reds are are min. 10% abv, 55 hl/ha, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet France, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Carmenère.
-Whites are medium-dry (must contain at least 4 gm/l R.S.; if less, it must be qualified as ‘sec’ on the label). Can be made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle, plus up to cumulative 30% Colombard, Mauzac, Merlot Blanc, Ondenc, and Ugni Blanc. 65 hl/ha.
-Rosés are medium-dry, black grapes only. 55 hl/ha.
Bordeaux Clairet AC
Bordeaux Rosé AC
Bordeaux Sec AC
•Bordeaux Clairet AC: Term refers to a red wine that is light in body and color (almost rosé.) Best come from the village of Quinsac in the Premières Côtes de Bordeaux. 55 hl/ha.
•Bordeaux Rosé AC: Wine deliberately produced as rosé. May be labeled simply as Bordeaux AC. 55 hl/ha.
•Bordeaux Sec AC: White Bordeaux with less than 4 gm/l R.S. 65 hl/ha.
Bordeaux Supérieur AC
Crémant de Bordeaux AC
•Bordeaux Supérieur AOC: ½ degree greater alcohol, 50 hl/ha for red and white rather than 55/65 respectively.
○Reds are dry, light or medium-to-full-bodied wines and are generally fuller than Bordeaux AOC. 50 hl/ha, min. 10.5% abv.
○Whites are dry (or sometimes sweet), light to medium-bodied, and are very uncommon. Max 15% Merlot Blanc. 50 hl/ha, 10.5% abv.
•Crémant de Bordeaux AOC: Introduced in 1990 to replace old Bordeaux Mousseux AOC (phased out Dec. 31, 1995). Nothing special. Varies from dry to sweet and light to medium-bodied. Rosé is also made, to equally disappointing effect. Min. 8.5% abv, 65 hl/ha.
En primeur; Tranches
En primeur sales happen in the spring following the vintage as a method of generating cash flow. There are at least two opportunities to buy, known as 1st and 2nd Tranches. Prices increase with each Tranche. The wines continue to mature in cellars until release, sometimes two years later.
Médoc AC
Red wine only from the "big six" varieties. 50 hl/ha. Min 10% abv.

Technically covers the entire Médoc, but most wines actually come from the northern third of the peninsula, north of the Haut-Médoc. Starts north of St.-Èstephe, and past the commune St-Seurin-de Cadourne(whose wines may use Haut-Médoc). Formerly known as the Bas-Médoc.

Extremely diverse soils, with considerable gravel, limestone, and sandy soils; generally richer than the Haut-Médoc.
Haut-Médoc AC
Red wine only. 48 hl/ha. Min 10% abv.

Just north of the city of Bordeaux, the lower two-thirds of the entire Médoc peninsula. Superior sub-region of the Médoc.

Encompasses the Médoc's four finest communes--Margaux, St.-Julien, Pauillac, and Ste.-Estèphe-as well as the less well-known Listrac and Moulis communes. Wines produced outside these six appellations but within the Haut-Médoc are not generally as thrilling.
Listrac-Médoc AC
Middle-left bank of Gironde River. Sits well inland, southwest of St.-Julien, northwest of Margaux. It sits just north of Moulis.

Red wine only. 10.5% abv, 45 hl/ha. These medium- to full-bodied wines have the fruit and finesse of St.-Julien with the firmness of St.-Estèphe. Best wines tend to have a large proportion of Merlot, which enjoys the clay soil.
Cru bourgeois
2007 decision reversed the 2003 ruling that set up a heierarchy (Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnels, Crus Bourgeois Supérieurs, Crus Bourgeois) and saw 200 Chateau lose their Cru Bourgeois status.

All Chateaux, including the 'exceptionnel' Chasse-Spleen, Poujeaux and Phélan Ségur, revert, along with the 444 chateaux of the 1932 classification, to a simple 'cru bourgeois' status. (?Correct? Numbers correct?)
Moulis AC or Moulis-en-Médoc AC
Left bank, sits well inland of the Gironde; south of and adjoining Listrac; NW of Margaux. Red wine only. 10.5% abv, 45 hl/ha. The best of the lesser-known appellations in Bordeaux. The wines from Moulis are among the longest-lived of Bordeaux. Usually medium-bodied wines. In top vintages, however, they are full-bodied, and powerful. Like Listrac, no cru classé, despite adjoining Margaux.
St.-Estèphe AC:
-Grape varieties
-Best producers
-Best values
Overview: The northernmost of the four principal Médoc appellations; north of Pauillac. Red wine only, "big six" allowed. 10.5% abv, 45 hl/ha.
-Soils: Less gravelly, so drainage is consequently slower. Best vineyards are on gravel ridges, but sandy and clay soils with some limestone are commonplace. The gravelly top soil is more fertile and has a much higher level of clay and limestone, which tends to produce a more rustic style of Bordeaux with higher tannins and acid.
Grape varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot dominate, with Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot in small proportions.
Pauillac AC:
-Grape varieties
Overview: South of St.-Estèphe; north of St.-Julien. Red wine only. 10.5% abv, 45 hl/ha.
Soils: Top soil of Pauillac is gravel. Pauillac consists of two large, low-lying gravel bed plateaus. Exposure is excellent. Gravel mounds, at their highest in Pauillac, are known as croupes.
Grape varieties: Cab Sauv dominates, with Merlot, Cabernet Franc, and Petit Verdot in small proportions.
St.-Julien AC
-Grape varieties
-Best producers
-Best values
Overview: South of Pauillac, north of Margaux. The smallest appellation of the big four. This AOC overlaps part of the commune of Pauillac. All the crus classé are great here, yet vary greatly in style. Red wine only. 10.5% min abv, 45 hl/ha.
Soils: Soil is similar to the light, gravel-based earth of Margaux, except that it is richer in clay. Most of the major vineyards are close to the Gironde, and therefore have excellent, well-drained, deep mounds/beds of gravel soil.
Grape varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, followed by Merlot and Cabernet Franc.
Best producers: Ducru-Beaucaillou; Gruaud-Larose; Lagrange; Léoville-Barton; Léoville-Las Cases; Léoville-Poyferré
Best values: Branaire; Gloria; St.-Pierre; Talbot; Gloria; Larose-Trintaudon
Margaux AC
-Grape varieties
-Vintage variability
-Best producers
-Best values
Overview: South of St.-Julien. Left bank of Gironde River. Largest of the Médoc's principal communes. Red wine only. 10.5% min abv, 45 hl/ha. This appellation covers five communes encompassing a great diversity of soil.
Soils: One large, low-lying plateau centering on the city of Margaux with shallow, pebbly, siliceous gravel over gravel subsoil. Extremely diverse. Generally, the white-colored soils in Margaux are the lightest and most gravelly of the Médoc. Thin topsoil here, and top vineyards (near river) have fine, gravelly soils not much different from those found in Pessac-Léognan. Further inland, more clay and sand are found.
Grape varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon. Much less Merlot is planted here than in other communes, due primarily to soil. Some Petit Verdot and Cabernet Franc are also grown.
Best producers: Margaux; Palmer; Rauzan-Ségla
Best values: Cantemerle; Dauzac; La Lagune
Name the five Margaux communes and the number of classed growths for each.
Arsac (1), Cantenac (8), Labarde (2), Margaux (10), and Soussans.
Graves AC
Wine profiles:
Important sub-regions/communes:
Best producers:
Best values:
Location: South of Médoc on the left bank of the Garonne River. Contains Cérons, Barsac, Sauternes, and Pessac-Leognan.
Climate: Very similar to the Médoc, but a little bit hotter with slightly more rainfall.
Soil: Gravel from Ice Age glaciers. Excellent drainage. Some sand, and weathered limestone and clay towards the southern end.
Wine profiles: Red and white wines, plus Graves Supérieur AC. Reds min 10% abv, whites min 11% abv; 50 hl/ha for red and whites.
Best producers: Haut-Brion; La Mission-Haut-Brion; Pape-Clément
Best values: Les Carmes-Haut-Brion; La Louvière. For white wines: Domaine de Chevalier; Laville-Haut-Brion
Pessac-Léognan AC
Red and white wines. Min 10% abv, Max 13% abv. Red wines 45 hl/ha; White wines 48 hl/ha. On the left bank of the Garonne River, is a sub-region of Graves, and covers the northernmost sector, which is essentially the ten communes of Cadaujac, Canéjan, Graignan, Léognan, Martillac, Mérignac, Pessac, St.-Medard-d’Eyrans, Talence, Villenave-d’Ornon. There are a total of 16 classified growths in Graves/Pessac-Léognan, all of which are located in the sub-region of Pessac-Léognan. 6 are classified for both their red and white wines, 7 are classified for red wines, and 3 are classified for white wines. ??More/less?
Cérons AC Overview
-List Communes
Area situated within the boundaries of Graves in the southern sector; north of Barsac. Appellation for sweet white only. Must include botrytized grapes harvested in tries. Lighter than Barsac. Min 12.5% abv, Min 212 g/l sugar, Max 40 hl/ha. This is the stepping stone between dry white Graves and sweet white Sauternes and Barsac. The chateaus of Cérons have been given the official right to make both red and white Graves, Graves Supérieur (which may be dry but is usually sweet) and the sweet wine of Cérons. Only 20% of production is sold as Cérons, as it only covers three communes: Cérons, Illats, and Podensac.
Wine profile:
Location: Within Graves bounderies; southernmost sector. Left bank of the Garonne River.
Appellation/communes: 5 communes are entitled to the Sauternes appellation. Barsac is the largest of those. Barsac, Bommes, Fargus, Preignac, Sauternes.
Wine profile: Sweet white wine only. If dry, those wines are entitled only to the AC Bordeaux appellation. Must include botrytized grapes harvested in tries. Musts must contain minimum 221 g/L sugar. Min alcohol 12.5%. 25 hl/ha.
Soil: Deep gravel beds over thick layers of limestone. Some sand and clay can be found in the less desirable parts of the appellation.
AC for Chateau d’Yquem’s ‘Y’
Bordeaux or Bordeaux Supérieur.
Pomerol AC
Wine profiles:
Soil: (and subsoil names)
Varietals: (synonyms?)
Location: Right bank of the Dordogne. NW of St.-Émilion, S of Lalande-de-Pomerol.
Wine profile: Red wine only. Min 10.5% abv, 42 hl/ha.
Climate: Less maritime and more continental than that of the Médoc, with a greater variation in daily temperatures. Slightly more rain during spring, and much less during summer and winter.
Soil: Subsoil consists of an iron-pan known as ‘crasse de fer’ or ‘machefer’, with gravel in the east and clay in the north and center. Soil is sandy to the west and to the east. Subsoil is a very deep, hard, and impermeable sedimentary rock called molasse.
Varietals: Merlot, Cabernet Franc (Bouchet), some Cabernet Sauvignon.
Other notes: The smallest great red wine producing region in Bordeaux.
Lalande-de-Pomerol AC
Wine profiles:
Location: A satellite commune of 2,500 acres located just to the north of Pomerol, separated from it by the Barbanne River.
It includes the two communes of Lalande-de-Pomerol and Néac.
Wine profiles: Red wines only. 10.5% min abv, 42 hl/ha.
Soil: Relatively light, gravelly, sandy soils.
Varietals: Merlot-dominated wines, with some Cab Franc, and small proportions of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec.
Producers: Belles-Graves; La Croix-St.-André; Bel-Air; Tournefeuille.
St.-Émilion AC
-Varieties (& Synonyms!)
Location: The right bank of the Dordogne River. Southeast of Pomerol. The Barbanne river forms much of its northern border; its ‘satellites’ live north of this river.
Wine profiles: Red wine only. Min 10.5% abv, 45 hl/ha for regular St. Emilion AC, Min 11% abv, 40 hl/ha for St. Emilion Grand Cru.
Soil: Best wines tend to be from the limestone plateau, limestone hillsides (the so-called côtes), and the gravel terraces (‘graves et sablés anciens’) adjacent to Pomerol.
Varietals: Merlot, Cabernet Franc (Bouchet), along with Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec (Pressac).
Entre-Deux-Mers AC
Wine profiles:
Soil: "Boulbènes"
Appellation notes:
Location: Located between the Rivers Dordogne and Garonne.
Wine profiles: White-only appellation, but this region also makes ¾ of all red wine sold as AC Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur. Min 10% abv, 60 hl/ha.
Climate: Wetter and more windy than the Médoc; areas near the river are liable to flood.
Soil: Clay on limestone subsoil. Some very fertile areas. In Premières Côtes de Bordeaux, south and southwest-facing gravel and limestone hills leading to a plateau richer in clay. Boulbènes is a sand-clay mixture found here that can compact to an almost concrete-like substance and can prove very difficult to work.
Varietals: Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle, Colombard, Mauzac, Merlot Blanc, Ugni Blanc.
Fronsac AC
Right bank of the Dordogne; westernmost of the Libournais/Fronsadais communes; west of Pomerol; north of Côtes-Canon-Fronsac. Red wine only. Min 11% abv, 47 hl/ha.
Merlot dominates, followed by Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and decreasing amounts of Malbec.
Soil: Clay and limestone, with some sandstone.
Côtes-Canon-Fronsac AC
Also sometimes called Canon-Fronsac AC. Right bank of Dordogne, adjoining and just south of Fronsac AC. Red wine only. Min 11% abv, 47 hl/ha.
All of the chateaus are located with the communes of St.-Michel-de-Fronsac and Fronsac.
Merlot dominates, followed by Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and decreasing amounts of Malbec.
Soil: Clay and limestone; most of the chateaus are on the upper slopes of this area’s hills.
Côtes de Bourg AC
Mostly red, some white. Min 10.5% abv, 50 hl/ha. Located on the right bank of the Gironde River. South of and adjoining the Côtes de Blaye, North of Fronsac. Though 1/5th the size of Blaye, it traditionally produces a greater quantity and much finer quality than those produced at Blaye. Reds from Merlot, Cab Franc, Cab Sauv, Malbec, Petit Verdot. Whites from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle (plus up to 10% Chenin Blanc aka Pineau de la Loire).

5; 3+1
Blaye AC, Côtes des Blaye AC, Premières Côtes de Blaye AC
North of Côtes de Bourg on the right bank of the Gironde River

Blaye is a red or white appellation. Reds from a blend of at least two of: Cab, Merlot, Malbec, Béguignol, Cahor, Prelongeau, Verdot. Whites from min. 90% Ugni Blanc, plus Colombard, Semillon, Sauvignon, Muscadelle, and Chenin.

Côtes des Blaye is whites only from 60-90% Colombard, plus Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, & Muscadelle. Merlot Blanc, Folle, and Chenin (locally Pinot de la Loire) not allowed after 2004.

The best vineyard areas are entitled to the appellation Premières Côtes de Blaye. Red and white wines. Reds from Cab Franc, Cabernet, Merlot, Cot. Whites from Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, and Muscadelle, plus max. 30% Colombard, Merlot Blanc, Ugni Blanc.

Soil: dominated by limestone, with some clay and gravel. Very fertile.
Grapes: Merlot dominates. For whites: Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Muscadelle, and Colombard.
Côtes de Castillon AC
Red wine only. Min 10.5% abv, 50 hl/ha. Located east of Puisseguin-St.-Émilion. South of Côtes de Francs, North of the Dordogne River. Grapes: Merlot, Cabernet Franc.
Bordeaux Côtes de Francs AC
Mostly red, some white. Reds min 11% abv, 50 hl/ha; Whites 11.5% abv, 50 hl/hq. Grapes: Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Malbec. Some Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, and Muscadelle.
Blaye AC
Blaye is located directly north of Bourg on the right bank of the Gironde River and produces 90% red and 10% white wines. Red or white. Min. 10% abv, 50 hl/ha reds, 60 hl/ha whites. Reds: Merlot, Cabernet, Malbec, Béguignol, Cahors, Petit Verdot, Prelongeau. Whites: Min 90% Ugni Blanc, remaining may be Colombard, Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle, and Chenin. Soil dominated by limestone, with some clay and gravel.

4+3; 1+5
Côtes des Blaye AC
Occupies same boundaries as Blaye AC. White wine only. 60-90% Colombard, remainder may be Sémillon, Sauvignon, Muscadelle. Min 9.5% abv, 60 hl/ha. Soil: dominated by limestone, with some clay and gravel. Very fertile.
Premières Côtes de Blaye AC
This covers the same area as Blaye and Côtes de Blaye, but only classic grapes are used and the min alcohol is higher. Red and white. Reds: At least two of the following. Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec; 10.5% abv, 50 hl/ha for reds. Whites: Min 70% combination of Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Muscadelle, remainder may be Colombard, Merlot Blanc, Ugni Blanc. Min. 10% abv, 60 hl/ha for whites. Soil: dominated by limestone, with some clay and gravel. Very fertile.

(4; 3+3)
First Growths of the Haut-Médoc.
Second Growths of the Haut-Médoc.
Third Growths of the Haut-Médoc.
Château La Lagune
Fourth Growths of the Haut-Médoc.
Château La Tour-Carnet
Fifth Growths of the Haut-Médoc.
Château Belgrave
Château de Camensac
Château Cantemerle
Grand Crus Classés of Graves/Pessac-Léognan.
Château Haut-Brion
First Growths of St.-Estèphe.
Second Growths of St.-Estèphe.
Château Cos d'Estournel
Château Montrose
Third Growths of St.-Estèphe.
Château Calon-Ségur
Fourth Growths of St.-Estèphe.
Château Lafon-Rochet
Fifth Growths of St.-Estèphe.
Château Cos-Labory
First Growths of Pauillac.
Château Lafite-Rothschild
Château Latour
Château Mouton-Rothschild (1973)
Second Growths of Pauillac.
Château Pichon-Longueville-Baron
Château Pichon-Longueville, Comtesse de Lalande
Third Growths of Pauillac.
Fourth Growths of Pauillac.
Château Duhart-Milon-Rothschild.
Fifth Growths of Pauillac.
Château d'Armailhac
Château Batailley
Château Clerc-Milon
Château Croizet-Bages
Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse
Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste
Château Haut-Bages-Libéral
Château Haut-Batailley
Château Lynch-Bages
Château Lynch-Moussas
Château Pédesclaux
Château Pontet-Canet
First Growths of St.-Julien.
Second Growths of St.-Julien.
Château Ducru-Beaucaillou
Château Gruaud-Larose
Château Léoville-Barton
Château Léoville-Las Cases
Château Léoville-Poyferré
Third Growths of St.-Julien.
Château Lagrange
Château Langoa-Barton
Fourth Growths of St.-Julien.
Château Beychevelle
Château Branaire-Ducru
Château Saint-Pierre
Château Talbot
Fifth Growths of St.-Julien.
First Growths of Margaux.
Château Margaux
Second Growths of Margaux.
Château Brane-Cantenac (Cantenac)
Château Durfort-Vivens
Château Lascombes
Château Rauzan-Gassies
Château Rauzan-Ségla
Third Growths of Margaux.
Château Boyd-Cantenac (Cantenac)
Château Cantenac-Brown (Cantenac)
Château Desmirail (Margaux)
Château Ferrière (Margaux)
Château Giscours (Labarde)
Château d'Issan (Cantenac)
Château Kirwan (Cantenac)
Château Malescot Saint-Exupéry (Margaux)
Château Marquis d'Alesme-Becker (Margaux)
Château Palmer (Cantenac)
Fourth Growths of Margaux.
Château Marquis-de-Terme (Margaux)
Château Pouget (Cantenac)
Château Prieuré-Lichine (Cantenac)
Fifth Growths of Margaux.
Château Dauzac (Labarde)
Château du Tertre (Arsac)
Second label of Cos d'Estournel
Le Pagodes de Cos

Origninally Marbuzet
Second label of Montrose
Le Dame de Montrose
Second label of Lafite-Rothschild
Les Carruades de Lafite-Rothschild
Second label of Latour
Les Forts de Latour
Second label of Mouton-Rothschild
Le Petit Mouton
Second label of Pichon-Longueville Baron
Le Tourelles de Longueville
Second label of Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande
Reserve de la Comtesse
Second label of Leoville-Las Cases
Clos du Marquis
Second label of Leoville-Poyferre
Moulin Riche
Second label of Leoville-Barton
La Reserve de Leoville-Barton
Second label of Gruaud-Larose
Le Sarget de Gruaud Larose
Second label of Ducru-Beaucaillou
Chateau La Croix
Second label of Langoa-Barton
Sister property of Leoville-Barton, both wines are actually vinified at Langoa as Leoville has no winery. Both also share the same second label:
Reserve de Leoville-Barton
Second label of Lagrange
Les Fiefs de Lagrange
Second label of Talbot
Le Connetable de Talbot
Second label of Chateau Margaux
Pavillon Rouge
Second label of Lascombes
Chevalier de Lascombes ?
Second label of Brane-Cantenac
Baron de Brane
Second label Durfort-Vivens
Second de Durfort

Domaine de Cure Bourse
Second label of Rauzan-Segla
Second label of Palmer
Alter Ego de Palmer
Second label of Haut-Brion
Le Bahans de Chateau Haut-Brion
Name 8 "Super Seconds"
Cos d'Estournel
Ch. Palmer (third growth)
Pichon-Longueville Baron
Communes whose wines may use Sauternes on the label.
Premier Cru Supérieur chateau(x) for Bordeaux sweet white wines.
Château d'Yquem
Name the Premier Cru chateau(x) for Bordeaux sweet white wines.
Château Climens (Barsac)
Château Clos Haut-Peyraguey (Bommes)
Château Coutet (Barsac)
Château Guiraud (Sauternes)
Château Lafaurie-Peyraguey (Bommes)
Château Rabaud-Promis (Bommes)
Château Rabaud-Sigalas (Bommes)
Château Rayne-Vigneau (Bommes)
Château Rieussec (Fargues)
Château de Suduiraut (Preignac)
Château La Tour-Blanche (Bommes)
Name the Deuxieme Cru chateau for Bordeaux sweet white wines.
Château d'Arche (Sauternes)
Château Broustet (Barsac)
Château Caillou (Barsac)
Château Doisy-Daëne (Barsac)
Château Doisy-Dubroca (Barsac)
Château Doisy-Védrines (Barsac)
Château Filhot (Sauternes)
Château Lamothe (Sauternes)
Château Lamothe-Guignard (Sauternes)
Château de Malle (Preignac)
Château de Myrat (Barsac)
Château Nairac (Barsac)
Château Romer-du-Hayot (Fargues)
Château Suau (Barsac)
Bordeaux Haut-Benauge AC
In Entre-Deux-Mers, northeast of and bordering Cadillac. White wines only. To claim this AC, as opposed to Entre-Deux-Mers-Haut-Benauge, the grapes are restricted to the three classic varieties and must be riper, with a minimum 195 g/L sugar instead of 170 g/L. Sémillon, Sauvignon and Muscadelle. Min 11.5% abv, 45 hl/ha.
Premiers grands crus classés "A" of St.-Emilion.
Château Ausone, Château Cheval Blanc.
Premiers grands crus classés "B" of St.-Emilion.
Château Angélus
Château Beau-Séjour Bécot
Château Beau-Séjour (Duffau-Lagarosse)
Château Belair
Château Canon
Château Figeac
Clos Fourtet
Château La Gaffelière
Château Magdelaine
Château Pavie
Château Pavie-Macquin
Château Troplong-Mondot
Château Trottevieille
List six Grands crus classés of St.-Emilion.
Château L'Arrosée
Château Canon La Gaffelière
Clos de l'Oratoire
Château Monbousquet
Château Pavie-Decesse
Château La Tour-Figeac
(There are 46 total.)
Which Châteaux had their classification change, and to what, in the 2006 St.-Emilion Classification?
Pavie-Macquin and Troplong-Mondot were promoted from Grand Cru Classé to Premier Grand Cru Classé (B).

Monbousquet was promoted to Grand Cru Classé.

11 were demoted.
Classified red wines of Graves. Year of classification?
1953, but not official until 1959 when whites were added.

Château Bouscaut (Cadaujac)
Château Carbonnieux (Léognan)
Château Domaine de Chevalier (Léognan)
Château de Fieuzal (Léognan)
Château Haut-Bailly (Léognan)
Château Haut-Brion (Pessac)
Château La Mission-Haut-Brion (Talence)
Château Latour-Haut-Brion (Talence)
Château Malartic-Lagravière (Léognan)
Château d'Olivier (Léognan)
Château Pape-Clément (Pessac)
Château Smith-Haut-Lafitte (Martillac)
Château La Tour-Martillac (Martillac)
List the Classified white wines of Graves. In what year did the classification occur?
Classification occurred in 1959.

Château Bouscaut (Cadaujac)
Château Carbonnieux (Léognan)
Château Couhins (Villenave d'Ornan)
Château Couhins-Lurton (Villenave d'Ornan)
Château Domaine de Chevalier (Léognan)
Château Haut-Brion (Pessac) (added in 1960)
Château Laville-Haut-Brion (Talence)
Château Malartic Lagravière (Léognan)
Château d'Olivier (Léognan)
Château La Tour-Martillac (Martillac)
In what year did the St.-Emilion Classification occur, and in what subsequent years was it reviewed?
The ranking was first drawn up in 1955, and subsequently reviewed in 1969, 1985, 1996 and 2006.
Chateau Margaux's white wine
Pavillon Blanc de Chateau Margaux.
3rd growths of Cantenac.
Graves Supérieur AC
Graves Supérieur AC is white only. Shares boundaries with Graves AC. It can be dry, but most is sweet, similar in style to Barsac. Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle. Min 12% abv, 40 hl/ha.
Where is the Libournais (and Fronsadais) district(s)?
The right bank of the Dordogne River; Merlot-dominated red wine country. Within its boundaries live St-Emilion, Pomerol, etc.
Important soil types in St.-Emilion:

•Limestone Hills:
•Gravel Terraces:
Best wines tend to be from the limestone plateau, the limestone hillsides (the so-called côtes), and the gravel terraces adjacent to Pomerol. Many distinct soil types:
•Limestone Hills: The so-called ‘côtes’. This area has a shallow, calcareous, clay-silty-loam topsoil with a high active lime content. The subsoil is mostly molasse. Grand Crus: Angélus, Beauséjour, la Gaffelière, Pavie.
•Gravel Terraces: Also known as ‘graves et sablés anciens’, located on the southeastern border of Pomerol, this area contains a gravelly bed intermixed with some clay and sand. Subsoil is molasse. The gravel is similar to that found in the Médoc. Grand Crus: Cheval Blanc, Figeac.
Cadillac AC
Entre-deux-Mers, One of the trio of sweet wine areas on the right bank of the Garonne, and the least known. Must be made from botrytized grapes harvested in tries. Sémillon, Sauvignon and Muscadelle. Min 221 g/L sugar, min 12% abv, 40 hL/ha.
Côtes-de-Bordeaux-St.-Macaire AC
Entre-Deux-Mers, right bank of the Garonne, east of Cadillac. Medium sweet whites from Sémillon, Sauvignon, and Muscadelle, not necessarily botrytized. Min 196 g/L, min 11.5%abv, 50 hL/ha.
Trio of sweet, botrytized white wines located on the right bank of the Garonne.
Cadillac, Loupiac, Ste.-Croix-Du Mont.
Entre-Deux-Mers-Haut-Benauge AC
Same physical boundaries as Bordeaux Haut-Benauge AC, north of Cadillac in Entre-Deux-Mers. Min 70% Sémillon, Sauvignon, and Muscadelle, plus a maximum of 30% Merlot Blanc and up to 10% total of Colombard, Mauzac, and Ugni Blanc.
Graves de Vayres AC
Northern Entre-Deux-Mers, on the left bank of the Dordogne, in an enclave of gravelly soil. Red and white wines. Reds are Cab Sauv, Cab Franc, Carmenère, Merlot, Malbec, Petit Verdot; 50 hL/ha. Whites are Sémillon, Sauv Blanc, and Muscadelle, plus max 30% Merlot Blanc; 60 hL/ha. 10.5% abv.
Loupiac AC
The best of the sweet white appellations in Entre-Deux-Mers, right bank of the Garonne (opposite Barsac), surrounded by Cadillac, northwest of Ste-Croix-du-Mont. White wines only from Sémillon, Sauv Blanc, and Muscadelle; must have botrytized grapes. Min 221 g/L sugar, 12.5% abv, 40 hL/ha.
Premières-Côtes-de-Bordeaux AC
A 60km strip of southwest facing slopes in Entre-Deux-Mers on the right bank of the Garonne; covers 37 communes.

Red and white wines. Reds from Cab Sauv, Cab Franc, Carmenère, Merlot, Malbec, Petit Verdot, min. 10.5% abv. Whites from Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, and Muscadelle, min 11.5% abv, 4+ g/L residual sugar. Both are 50 hL/ha.

Only red wines may append the name of the commune to "Premières-Côtes-de-Bordeaux", and then must have a min 11.5% abv.

Ste.-Croix-Du-Mont AC
The second best sweet AC on the right bank of the Garonne in Entre-Deux-Mers. These white wines must be produced with the assistance of botrytized grapes. Sémillon, Sauv Blanc, and Muscadelle. Min 221 g/L sugar, min 12.5% abv, 40 hL/ha.
Ste.-Foy-Bordeaux AC
Furthest east of the Entre-Deux-Mers appellations, on the left bank of the Dordogne. Red and white wines.

Reds from Cab, Cab Franc, Merlot, Malbec, Petit Verdot. Whites From Sémillon, Sauv Blanc, and Muscadelle, and up to 10% total of Merlot Blanc, Colombard, Mauzac, and Ugni Blanc. Reds are min 178 g/L sugar, 10.5% abv, max 50 hL/ha, whites are min 187 hL/ha sugar, 11% abv, max 55 hL/ha.

(5; 3+4)
Important soil types in St.-Emilion:
•St.-Émilion Limestone Plateau:
•St.-Christophe Plateau:
•St.-Émilion Limestone Plateau: Shallow clay-limestone and clay sand, shell debris, and silt topsoil over eroded limestone subsoil. Grand Crus: Ausone, Beau-Séjour Bécot
•St.-Christophe Plateau: Clay-limestone and clay-sand topsoil over limestone and terra rossa subsoil.
•Plains: Sandy-covered slopes yielding lighter wines. The sand is large-grained and permeable, but the molasse subsoil below is impermeable. Water collects, saturating root systems and increasing soil acidity. Some chateaus have underground drainage pipes to combat these effects.
Best vintages for Médoc wines since 1970
1982, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2005
Best vintages for Right Bank wines since 1970.
1975, 1982, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1995, 1998, 2005
Worst vintages for Médoc wines since 1970.
1998, 1997, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1980, 1977, 1973
Worst vintages for Right Bank wines since 1970.
1997, 1991, 1992, 1987, 1981, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1976
"Historic" vintages of Bordeaux from 1900-Present.
Regional Vin de Pays
Vin de pays Comtés Rhodaniens
Vin de pays du Comté Tolosan
Vin de pays du Jardin de la France
Vin de pays d'Oc
Port de Méditernanée
Types of vin de pays; subtypes
Regional, départementale, zonal

subtypes of the above:

Vins de cépage
Vine de pays primeur
French-"Vin de Qualité Produits dans des Régions Déterminées"- In the European Common Market (EU standards), means that the wine has been certified as falling into one of the common gradations within the area of origin.

Portugal- "Vinho De Qualidade Produzido Em Região Demarcada" in Portugal refers to wines which come from a demarcated region; the DOCs and IPRs are collectively known in bureaucratic terms as VQPRDs.
Second wine of Château Lynch-Bages
Second wine of Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste
Château Lacoste-Borie
Second wine of Château La Mission Haut-Brion
La Chapelle de La Mission Haut-Brion
Second wine of Château Ausone
Chapelle d'Ausone
Second wine of Château Cheval Blanc
Le Petit Cheval
Château Lafite-Rothschild Encépagement
Varies, but typical might be:

81% Cabernet Sauvignon
15% Merlot
2% Cabernet Franc
2% Petit Verdot
Château Latour Encépagement
79% Cabernet Sauvignon
18% Merlot
2% Petit Verdot
1% Cabernet Franc
Château Mouton-Rothschild Encépagement
80% Cabernet Sauvignon
10% Cabernet Franc
8% Merlot
2% Petit Verdot
Château Haut-Brion Encépagement
47% Cabernet Sauvignon
43% Merlot
10% Cabernet Franc
Château Margaux Encépagement
75-85% Cabernet Sauvignon
7-18% Merlot
3-7% Petit Verdot
0-4% Cab Franc
Encépagement of Ch. Rauzan-Ségla
63% Cabernet Sauvignon
35% Merlot
2% Cabernet Franc
Encépagement of Ch. Rauzan-Gassies
65% Cabernet Sauvignon
25% Merlot
10% Cabernet Franc
Encépagement of Ch. Léoville-Las-Cases
70% Cabernet Sauvignon
20% Merlot
10% Cabernet Franc
('01 vintage)
Encépagement of Ch. Léoville-Poyferré
65% Cabernet Sauvignon
25% Merlot
8% Cabernet Franc
2% Petit Verdot
Encépagement of Ch. Léoville-Barton
72% Cabernet Sauvignon
20% Merlot
8% Cabernet Franc
Encépagement of Ch. Durfort-Vivens
65% Cabernet Sauvignon
20% Merlot
15% Cabernet Franc

(Above are plantings, but in the final blend Cabernet Sauvignon has reached as high as 82%, the highest in the southern Médoc.)
Encépagement of Ch. Gruaud-Larose
65% Cabernet Sauvignon
25% Merlot
8% Cabernet Franc
2% Petit Verdot
Encépagement of Ch. Lascombes
55% Cabernet Sauvignon
40% Merlot
5% Petit Verdot
Encépagement of Ch. Brane-Cantenac
65% Cabernet Sauvignon
30% Merlot
5% Cabernet Franc

The little Petit Verdot that was planted has been pulled up recently; % of Merlot has increased.
Encépagement of Ch. Pichon-Longueville
70% Cabernet Sauvignon
25% Merlot
5% Cabernet Franc
Encépagement of Ch. Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande
45% Cabernet Sauvignon
35% Merlot
12% Cabernet Franc
8% Petit Verdot
Encépagement of Ch. Ducru-Beaucaillou
65% Cabernet Sauvignon
25% Merlot
5% Cabernet Franc
5% Petit Verdot
Encépagement of Ch. Cos d'Estournel
60% Cabernet Sauvignon
38% Merlot
2% Cabernet Franc
Encépagement of Ch. Montrose
65% Cabernet Sauvignon
25% Merlot
8% Cabernet Franc
2% Petit Verdot
Encépagement of Ch. Calon-Ségur
65% Cabernet Sauvignon
20% Merlot
15% Cabernet Franc
Encépagement of Ch. Lynch-Bages
75% Cabernet Sauvignon
15% Merlot
10% Cabernet Franc
Bordeaux Vintages, '05-'07
'07: A difficult growing season: a cool, damp summer was followed by a warm September that kept the vintage from being a complete washout, but it will still be difficult to find great wines.

'06: A great summer was followed by heavy rain in late August, leading to rot. A wide range of qualities, with St-Émilion claiming success with Merlot, and Cab doing best in the Médoc.

'05: The hyped vintage lives up to the hype. Great wines from both sides, though some St-Émilions may be overextracted.
Bordeaux Vintages, '01-'04
'04: A great vintage for lovers of classically styled Bordeaux. Beautiful fruit, integrated tannins, promising complexity. Both sides faired well.

'03: Extreme heat through most of summer, with more moderate conditions in September. Left Bank better as Merlot suffered a bit. Some really exotic wines, if not typical.

'02: Very nearly a disaster, saved by a high-pressure system in September. Left bank showing better than expected; Right bank lost much Merlot to rot.

'01: Not the wines of '00, these are showing well young, and have balance, length and elegance. Variable but superior to the '99s.