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286 Cards in this Set

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When using the Fite procedure, mycobacteria are stained:
red
Which of the following will bind to acid mucosubstances and may then be demonstrated by the Prussian blue reaction?

a) diastase
b) dimedone
c) colloidal iron
d) hyaluronidase
c) colloidal iron
Parallel sections are stained with PAS, one with and one without diastase digestion. When the staining results are evaluated, the digested section demonstrates:
sites where glycogen was removed
Which of the following pigments is birefringent?

a) formalin
b) bile
c) lipofuscin
d) melanin
a) formalin
Acid mucosubstances and neutral mucosubstances can be differentiated by stained with both:
alcian blue and PAS
In the colloidal iron method of staining, the principle of the reaction is believed to be the formation of an ionic bond between ferric iron and the free carboxyl group of the:
acid mucopolysaccharides
In order to suppress background and non-specific staining, a Congo red solution frequently contains:
sodium chloride
In metachromatic staining, the strong acid mucosubstances can be distinguished from weakly-acid mucosubstances by varying the:
pH
The PAS reaction is useful for the demonstration of:
neutral mucopolysaccharides
A section of muscle has been stained with the Verhoeff-van Gieson procedure. Microscopic excamination shows blue-black nuclei, pale pink collagen, and unstained muscle fibers. The significance of these results is that the:
picric acid was too dilute
A lymph node is stained with a silver method for reticulin and counterstained with nuclear fast red. After dehydration, there is a film over the entire slide that remains through clearing and coverslipping. The most likely cause is that the:
slides were not rinsed with water after counterstaining
Yellow-brown pigment, often found in cardiac muscle and liver cells in increasing amounts with age or debilitated states, is known as:
lipofuscin
Hemosiderin, hemoglobin, and bile pigment are classified as what type of pigments?
endogenous pigments
The most appropriate hematoxylin solution for nuclear staining in a lengthy procedure that uses several very acidic solutions is one that is mordanted with:
iron
A modified phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin procedure can be used to demonstrate:
glial fibers
Which of the following is an argyrophil method?

a) Fontana-Masson
b) Gomori-Burtner
c) Grimelius
d) Weigert iron hematoxylin
Grimelius
In the Bodian technique, interference with primary staining may occur with prolonged treatment in:
oxalic acid
The staining intensity of eosin is increased in muscle and red blood cells when tissues are fixed in:
Zenker solution
The laboratory has used all of the supply of aluminum hematoxylin solution. In order to prepare a new solution for immediate use, the solution must be:
chemically oxidized
A commonly used connective tissue procedure that stains collagen blue is:
Massin trichrome
When using the cresyl echt violet method, Nissl substances and nuclei can be preferentially stained by varying the degree of differentiation and the:
solution pH
Muscle that histologically contains cytoplasmic cross-striations and has multple nuclei located at the edge of the fibers is classifed as:
skeletal
A method for demonstrating nucleic acids in which DNA stains green and RNA stains red, is:
methyl green-pyronin
An effective counterstain following some silver impregnantion procedures is:
light green
The Fontana-Masson technique may be used to stain:
melanin
Which of the following is a regressive staining method for demonstrating a connective tissue component?

a) Verhoeff-van Gieson
b) Mallory aniline blue
c) Masson trichrome
d) Wilder reticulin
Verhoeff-van Gieson
The differentiation solution in the Holzer method for glial fibers is:
aniline oil-chloroform
Whihc of the following staining procedures is preferred for demonstrating intracytoplasmic DNA-type viral inclusions in tissue?

a) phloxine-methylene blue
b) Feulgen
c) PTAH
d) Warthin-Starry
b) Feulgen
A solvent that is commonly used in oil red O and Sudan black B solutions to prevent the loss of lipids during fat staining is:
propylene glycol
In the Verhoeff-van Gieson technique for demonstrating elastic fibers, the Verhoeff staining solution may be used for a few:
hours
A Ziehl-Neelsen procedure is done on a lung granuloma, but no acid-fast organisms are demonstrated. It would be wise to verify the absence of these organisms by using which of the following procedures?

a) Grocott methenamine silver
b) Truant auramine-rhodamine
c) Warthin-Starry
d) Gram
b) Truant auramine-rhodamine
Microscopic inspection of a PAS-stained control section for fungi reveals very palely stained fungal organisms, making identification difficult. A likely cause for this problem is the:
use of depleated Schiff reagent
A methyl green-pyronin procedure is done on a formalin fixed section of tissue, but there is no evident RNA. Unless the procedure has been modified for formalin fixation, which of the following fixatives would have given more desirable results in this situation?

a) Bouin
b) Carnoy
c) Zenker
d) Zamboni
b) Carnoy
Examples of natural dyes are:

a) hematoxylin, eosin, methylene blue
b) aniline blue, carmine, and hematoxylin
c) crystal violet, methyl green, and indigo
d) hematoxylin, carmine, and indigo
d) hematoxylin, carmine, and indigo
A chemical that will bleach melanin is:
hydrogen peroxide
Which of the following characteristics of ammoniacal silver solutions may cause tissue sections to was off during impregnantion?

a) osmotic pressure
b) alkalinity
c) concentration
d) temperature
b) alkalinity
The primary staining solution used in the Schmorl technique contains ferric chloride and potassium:
ferricyanide
Which of the following procedures stains fibrin blue, nuclei blue, and collagen red?

a) Gomori aldehyde fuchsin
b) Mallory PTAH
c) Gomori one step trichrome
d) PAS-hematoxylin
b) Mallory PTAH
In the Verhoeff-van Gieson technique for demonstrating elastic fibers, the Verhoeff staining solution is made when?
made fresh before each use
Microscopic revie of a section stained with Warthin-Starry technique shows the spirochetes stained yellow. The most likely cause of this problem is:
underdeveloping
Argentaffin cells found in the epithelium of the stomach and intestines are known as which of the following cells:

a) amphophilic
b) enterochromaffin
c) absorptive
d) Paneth
b) enterochromaffin
Which of the following substances is used in acid-fast staining procedures to enhance carbolfuchsin staining and aid in dissolving the fuchsin dye?

a) HCl acid
b) methylene blue
c) phenol
d) water
c) phenol
True epithelial cells lining ventricles and the spinal canal are called:
ependymal
Solutions of anionic dyes in picric acid are used to demonstrate:
collagen
Which of the following pigments can be stained with Sudan black B and carbol fuchsin?

a) bilirubin
b) hemoglobin
c) lipofuscin
d) melanin
c) lipofuscin
Transitional epithelium refers to:
urothelium
Microscopic evaluation of a Brown and Brenn-stained control section shows the presence of gram-positive organisms, but no gram-negative organisms. This problem is most likely caused by:
overdifferentiation in picric acid-acetone
Which of the following elastic stains perform well after any fixative, gives intense black staining of coarse fibers, must be differentiated microscopically, and gives permanent results with little fading?

a) PTAH
b) Verhoeff
c) Weigert
d) Masson
b) Verhoeff
The addition of thymol crystals to staining solutions used for demonstrating microorganisms serves to:
inhibit mold growth
A technique that can be used to demonstrate lipids in paraffin sections is:
fixation with osmium tetroxide
The reducing agent in diamine silver procedures for reticulin demonstration is most frequently:
formaldehyde
The basic component of the central nervous system is the:
neuron
Which of the following combination of stains will demonstrate both the myelin sheath and nerve fibers?

a) gallocyanine and Bodian
b) Nonidez and Bielschowsky
c) Luxol fast blue and Holmes
d) Sevier-Munger and thionin
c) Luxol fast blue and Holmes
A silver impregnation technique for demonstrating neurofibrils that ues formalin asa reducing agent is the ___ technique.
Gros-Bielschowsky
The most consistently reliable technique for demonstrating fungi in tissues is the:
Grocott methanamine silver
In addition to hematoxylin and potassium or ammonium alum, a traditional solution of Mayer hematoxylin contains:
sodium iodate, chloral hydrate and citric acid
For light microscopic evaluation it is generally necessary to use special stains to demonstrate fungi in tissue sections because fungi:
are never stained with routine procedures
Which of the following staining procedures is most suitable for demonstrating general tissue morphology?

a) PAS
b) Verhoeff-van Gieson
c) hematoxylin and eosin
d) Wilder reticulin
c) hematoxylin and eosin
The sequence of an exogenous pigment is:

a) argentaffin
b) melanin
c) chromaffin
d) carbon
d) carbon
The sequence of reactions in the Wilder and Snook ammoniacal silver methods for demonstrating reticulin fibers is:
oxidation, sensitization, reduction, silver impregnation
The Gomori ammoniacal silver technique for demonstrating reticulin will also demonstrate:
small brain capillaries
The largest portion of the brain is the:
cerebrum
Hemosiderin-laden microphages present in the alveolar spaces of the lung can be distinguished from other pigmented macrophages by staining with:
Prussian blue
The pigment commonly known as "wear and tear" pigment or "brown atrophy" is:
lipofuscin
To properly classify bone, it may be described as:
cancellous and compact
Melanin is normally found in the:
skin
A gram stain has been done ona reactive, inflammatory lymph node, and the background structures are stained intense red, making identification of gram-negative organisms very difficult. This is most likely due to:
poor differentiation with picric acid-acetone
Which of the following acids in an alcoholic solution is most commonly used to differentiate aluminum-hematoxylin stained sections?

a) formic
b) hydrochloric
c) sulfuric
d) acetic
b) hydrochloric
In the orcinol-new fuchsin technique, elastic fibers stain:
deep violet tinged with brown
Which of the following is a metachromatic stain used for identifying neurons and neuroglial cells?

a) aniline blue
b) luxol fast blue
c) toluidine blue
d) Giemsa
c) toluidine blue
Connective tissue proper refers to tissue composed of:
collagen, reticulin, and elastin
A staining method used to demonstrate microglia is:
Del Rio-Hortega
The purpose of iodine in Gram procedures for staining bacteria is to:
form a dye lake with crystal violet
The terms "squamous", "cuboidal", and "columnar" describe cells that have their origin in which tissue?
epithelial
The atomic grouping within a dye that gives it its color is called a(n):
chromophore
In which of the following staining methods for nerve fibers is hydroquinone used?
Bodian
The reagen used for adjusting the pH to 3.4 in the Gomori trichrome stain solution for use on frozen sections of muscle is 1 N:
NaOH
The purpose of classifying bacteria as either gram-positive or gram-negative is to:
determine susceptibility of organisms for certain treatment
Which of the following chemicals is used as both a mordant and a differentiator in the Heidenhain hematoxylin procedure for deomstrating amebae?

a) mercuric chloride
b) chromium aluminum sulfate
c) aluminum ammonium sulfate
d) ferric ammonium sulfate
d) ferric ammonium sulfate
Fixation of tissues for 2 weeks in which of the following will most likely impair nuclear staining?

a) NBF
b) Zenker solution
c) paraformaldehyde
d) glyoxal
b) Zenker solution
A researcher wishes to differentiate the different types of granulocytes in a tissue section. The stain of choice is a ___ stain.
Romanowsky
A substance that has the ability to both bind silver and reduce it to a visible metallic form is said to be:
argentaffin
After H&E staining, the cytoplasm in a tissue section appears hazy, obscure and contrasts poorly with the nuclei. The most likely cause is that:
slides were not differentiated properly in alcohol
Rinsing in alcohol or water after primary stain application should be avoided in the thionin method for demonstrating Nissl substance because:
the primary stain will be removed
Microscopic review of auramine-rhodamine stained control slides will reveal:
mycobacteria
A dye in which the coloring elements are found in the anionic portion of the compound is a:
acid dye
The Stein and Hall techniques are based on the conversion of bile pigment to:
biliverdin
The acid used in the Prussian blue reaction is:
hydrochloric
Areolar connective tissue isalso known as:
loose connective tissue
A hematoxylin solution that is only used progressively is:
Mayer
Nuclei stained with a new Harris hematoxylin solution are predominately red and imprecisely outlined. This is most likely because of the use of:
incompletely oxideized hematoxylin
In the Hall method, Fouchet reagent is used to demonstrate:
bile
Chronic Renal Failure Nursing Diagnoses
Fluid volume excess
High risk for fluid volume deficit (diuretic phase)
Risk for infection
Altered nutrition: < body requirements
Sensory-perceptual alterations
Altered thought processes
Fatigue
Anxiety
Microscopic examination of an H&E-stained section shows a pink artifact surrounding the tissue and in tissue spaces. The most probable cause of this artifact it:
surplus adhesive on the slide
In the Mallory phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin (PTAH) method, skeletal muscle striations stain:
blue
Acidophilic tissue components that should appear stained different shades of pink following H&E staining are:
muscle, collagen, and erythrocytes
In order for the Gram stain to work properly, it is important to apply the mordant:
after the crystal violet
Which of the following methods use a methenamine solution?

a) Foot-Bielschowsky and Bodian
b) Wilder and Snook
c) Jones and Gomori
d) Gridley and Laidlaw
c) Jones and Gomori
The purpose of an acetic acid rinse in the Gomori one-step trichrome procedure is to:
make color shades more transparent
Differental staining of nuclei and cytoplasm with Giemsa solution is an example of:
polychromasia
Which of the following histological features is unique to cardiac muscle?

a) cross-striations
b)peripherally located nuclei
c) intercalated discs
d) non-branching fibers
intercalated discs
Pigment that is present on the surface of cells but not within them is probably:
artifactual
Oligodendroglia are cells that function in the production and maintenance of myelin sheaths that surround:
axons
Which of the following is an example of a metochromatic stain?

a) Congo red
b) orange G
c) toluidine blue
d) thioflavin T
c) toluidine blue
Hemosiderin can be removed from tissue by treating the sections with dilute solution of:
sulfuric acid
Which of the following procedures will demonstrate most amoebae in tissue sections?

a) Grocott methenamine silver
b) Kinyoun acid-fast
c) Mayer mucicarmine
d) PAS
PAS
Which of the follownig is an iron hematoxylin solution that is frequently used for nuclear staining?

a) Harris
b) Delafield
c) Mayer
d) Weigert
d) Weigert
The pigment that is formed following a reaction of ferrous ions with potassium ferricyanide is known as:
turnball blue
Microscopic examination of a skeletal muscle section stained with PTAH reveals very pale pink staining of teh collagen. The most common cause of this pale staining is:
prolonged water and alcohol rinses
A staining procedure that allows correlative studies of a cellular elements, fiber pathways, and vascular components of the nervous system is the Luxol fast blue combined with the ___ stain.
PAS-hematoxylin
Cells that are numerous in connective tissue and have cytoplasmic granules that satin metachromatically are:
mast cells
An elastic tissue stain that may also be useful for staining beta cells of pancreatic islets is:
Gomori aldehyde fuchsin
Stains for simple lipids are preformed on which of the following sections:

a) paraffin
b) frozen
c) celloidin
d) glycol methacrylate
b) frozen
The toughest of the connective tissue fibers is:
collagen
Which of the following is the only hematogenous pigment found in normal red blood cells?

a) hemoglobin
b) hemosiderin
c) hematoidin
d) hemozoon
a) hemoglobin
Oil red O staining is based on the principle of:
absorption
Which of the following methods involves the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions followed by precipitation with the Turnball blue reaction?

a) Schmorl
b) Grimelius
c) Servier-Munger
d) Gmelin
a) Schmorl
In the Gomori aldehyde fuchsin technique, elastic fibers stain:
violet-purple
A method that will selectively stain astrocytes in frozen sections is the:
Cajal gold sublimate
Which of the following is an argyrophil stain for neurofibrils that can also be used to demonstrate neurosecretory granules?

a) Cajal
b) Fontana-Masson
c) Sevier-Munger
d) Weil
c) Sevier-Munger
Some argentaffin cells are also known as:
Kulchitsky cell
Which of the following acts as the differentiating solution in the Verhoeff-van Gieson procedure?

a) Weigert iodine solution
b) borax ferricyanide
c) ferric chloride
d) acid alcohol
c) ferric chloride
The staining mechanism in which metallic substance are selectively deposited are selectively deposited on structures and made visible by reduction of the metal is called:
impregnation
Entamoeba histolytica can be demonstrated ell with which of the following procedures or methods?

a) Gordon-Sweets
b) von Kossa
c) PAS
d) Schmorl
c) PAS
In the Gomori one-step trichrome stain, collagen stains:
green
In humans, nonkeratinizing stratified squamous epithelium is found lining/covering the:
esophagus
The cytoplasmic granules in connective tissue mast cells stain well with:
toluidine blue
In the Weigert stain for fibrin, the principal coloring agent is:
crystal violet
Microscopic examination of an H&E-stained section reveals basophlic material in the cytoplasm of the neurons. This material is most likely:
RNA
Which of the following methods is a modification of the Bodian technique that uses a buffered impregnation solution to increase the specificity of stain?
Holmes
Which of the following stains is dependent upon difference in the bacterial cell wall for differential staining?

a) Gridley
b) Gram
c) Grocott
d) Warthin-Starry
b) Gram
Acid-alcohol decolorizers are generally recommended over aqueous decolorizers for use with acid-fast procedures because alcoholic solutions:
allow more uniform decolorization
A section of which of the following provides a control when demonstrating elastic fibers?

a) lung
b) kidney
c) spleen
d) liver
a) lung
Which of the following hematoxylin solutions contains ethylene glycol and aluminum sulfate?

a) Harris
b) Delafield
c) Gill
d) Mayer
c) Gill
A tumor or new growth largely made up of nerve cells is called a(n):
neuroma
In the Jones and Gomori methenamine-silver techniques for basement membranes, sections are oxidized with:
chromic acid
To aid in the specific identification of a mycotic infection, which of the following techniques may be used?

a) Schmorl
b) fluorescent antibody
c) MacCallum-Goodpasture
d) Sevier-Munger
b) fluroescent antibody
A component of nerve tissue that can be demonstrated by gold and silver impregnation techniques is/are:
neurofibrils
Nissl substances can be demonstrated with which of the following stains?

a) thionin and cresyl echt violet
b) eosin and phloxine
c) silver nitrate and gold sublimate
d) orange G and methyl blue
a) thionin and cresyl echt violet
Tissue intended for Brown-Hopps staining of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is fixed in Bouin solution. The most likely effect of this fixative on staining results is to:
inhibit staining
In the Wilder technique for demonstrating reticulin, uranyl nitrate acts as a(n):
sensitizer
Microscopic evaluation of an H&E-stained section reveals dark deposits of material dispersed irregularly over the tissue. The most likely cause of this problem is that the hematoxylin solution:
was not filtered before use
Microscopic evaluation of a GMS-stained section shows elastic fibers, crenated red cells, and mucin all stained black. This is most likely the result of:
overexposure to hot methenamine silver
During microscopic examination of a fungus stain, extraneous fungal elements are seen above rather than in the section. The most likely cause for this problem is:
contaminated staining solutions
Sections of lung stained with GMS and PAS show positive staining of what appear to be cryptococcal organisms. However, the same oval-shaped bodies are seen in non-granulomatous areas and on edges of the tissue. This "positive" staining material is therefore most likely:
talcom powder
Spirochetes are filamentous bacteria that are known to be:
argyrophilic
Following hematoxylin and eosin staining, slides are dehydrated through ascending strengths of alcohol and cleared in xylene in the series is milky white. The most appropriate action is to:
change alcohol and xylenes at the end of the series
In the Warthin-Starry technique, occasional staining of nuclei, melanin, and other pigments may interfere with identification of the microorganisms. Modifications in the staining procedure that might eliminate this problem are:
shorter development and a lower pH
If hematoxylin is unavailable, which of the following dyes is recommended as a substitute in a routine hematoxylin and eosin procedure?

a) methyl blue
b) aniline blue
c) Nile blue A
d) celestine blue
d) celestine blue
The PTAH stain is useful for demonstrating:
muscle striations
Hemosiderin is thought to be composed of ferric iron and:
protein
The density of collagen fibers in any given organ varies from "loose" to "dense" according to the:
location and function
In slides stained with H&E, the sections appear very pink, with pale-reddish brown nuclei. Of the following, the most appropriate action is to:

a) restain the sections for a longer time in hematoxylin
b) discard and replace the ammonia water
c) replace the hematoxylin with fresh solution
d) the inability to tone
replace the hematoxylin with fresh solution
In silver impregnation techniques, the use of improperly cleaned glassware results in:
nonselective silver precipitation
Which of the following methods stains elastic tissue brown?

a) acid orcein
b) resorcin-fuchsin
c) Gomori aldehyde fuchsin
d) Verhoeff-van Gieson
acid orcein
The function of potassium permanganate in the PTAH method is thought to be that of a:
mordant
A hematoxylin stain primarily used to demonstrate amoebae is:
Heidenhain iron
The pathologist has requested a Feulgen procedure on a lymph node. The staining sequence for this procedure is:
hydrochloric acid, Schiff, sulfurous acid, light green
Fresh silver solutions were properly prepared and used in a Warthin-Starry technique. After completion of the procedure, the positive control doe not demonstrate spirochetes. Of the following, the most likely reason for this problem is:

a) poorly fixed tissue
b) contaminated glassware
c) improperly prepared reducing solution
d) incorrectly selected mordant
improperly prepared reducing solution
The function of Bouin fluid in trichrome stains is that of a(n):
mordant
In order to protect the leprosy organism from extraction of the acid-fasts component, sections are deparaffinized in xylene and:
peanut oil
In the Verhoeff-van Gieson technique, ferric chloride and iodine in the Verhoeff solution function initially as mordants and then as:
oxidizers
A black pigment that is insoluble, often found in the lungs and hilar lymph nodes, cannot be bleached and cannot be identified by typical chemical reactions for pigments is most likely:
anthracotic
Which of the following tissue components can be stained by Weigert resorcin-fuchsin, Hard resorcin-fuchsin, or orcinol-new fuchsin?

a) reticular fibers
b) myosin fibers
c) elastic fibers
d) collagen fibers
c) elastic fibers
Sections stained with the Grocott procedure for fungi were originally completely satisfactory. After several weeks of being exposed to light, however, a granular black precipitate can be seen over the sections. This is most likely due to the omission during staining of:
sodium thiosulfate
The routine staining procedures for liver biopsies include duplicate H&E, PAS with and without diastase, trichrome, reticulin, and iron stains. While doing the stains, a trichrome stain is accidently done on the slide designated for PAS without diastase. There are no more unstained sections. Aside from cutting more sections, which of the following stained sections ould be best to destain and then stain for PAS without diastase?

a) trichrome
b) PAS with diastase
c) reticulin
d) H&E
d) H&E
Mordants are generally classified as:
metallic
The oxidizer in the Gridley procedure for reticulin fibers is:
periodic acid
A rapid bile identification technique that involves destruction of tissue sections by acid is the:
Gmelin test
The oxidizer used in the Gomori reticulin method is:
potassium permanganate
The purpose of nonmetallic forceps, acid-cleaned glassware, and triple-distilled water in silver techniques is to prevent:
contamination of the silver solution
Another name for fat cells is:
adipocytes
Elastic fibers have an affinity for which of the following stains?

a) Sudan
b) indigo
c) brazilin
d) orecin
d) orecin
Of the following, the most reliable stain for demonstrating gram-negative bacteria in tissue sections is the:

a) Giemsa
b) Brown-Hopps
c) Ziehl-Neelsen
d) Grocott
b) Brown-Hopps
A delicate 3-demensional connective tissue meshwork that forms the framework of organs such as the spleen and lymph nodes is made of:
reticular fibers
Carmine and aluminum chloride combine to form Mayer:
mucicarmine
In the Bodian technique, Protargol impregnates both neurofibrils and connective tissue. Subsequently, connective tissue is rendered colorless by replacement of the silver with:
gold
Cartilage is characterized by a solid intercellular substance that stains metachromatically called:
chondromucin
The primary dye used in rapid, non-silver staining procedure to demonstrate H. pylori is:
azure-eosin
The chromic acid-Schiff procedure that demonstrates the cell walls of fungi is known as:
Bauer method
A method that will stain hemoglobin emerald-green is:
Dunn-Thompson
In the Feulgen reaction for nucleic acids, slides are placed in 1N hydrochloric acid to promote:
hydrolysis
The Grocott methenamine-silver method can be used to demonstrate:
uric acid
Important factors affecting gram-positive staining of some organisms include the:
age of organism

acidity of environment
The Schmorl method will stain reducing substances:
blue
Microscopic evaluation of a Wright-stained smear reveals poor nuclear staining and very little cytoplasmic differentiation. This is most likely the result of:
an improper pH
A component in the cell nucleus that stains strongly with basic dyes is called:
chomatin
The nerve process that carries electrical impulses away from the cell body is called a(n):
axon
Differentiating agents in the Luxol fast blue procedure for myelin are:
lithium carbonate and 70% alcohol
In the Masson trichrome method, muscle fibers are colored:
red
The staining method considered to be most sensitive and specific for copper is the ___ method.
rhodamine
The Mallory technique uses aniline blue to stain:
collagen
Which of the following chemicals functions as an oxidizer?

a) aluminum sulfate
b) sodium sulfite
c) potassium permanganate
d) acetic acid
Proc) potassium permanganate
The most commonly used dye solution for staining Mycobacterium tuberculosis is composed of:
basic fuchsin and phenol
Ammonia water, lithium carbonate soluton, and Scott tap water substitute are examples of:
bluing agents
Procedures that demonstrate argentaffin granules include which of the following?

a) Grimelius and Sevier-Munger
b) Churukian-Schenck and Bodian
c) Fontana-Masson and Gomori-Burtner
d) Pascual and Gros-Schultze
c) Fontana-Masson and Gomori-Burtner
An organism that is resistant to decolorization after staining with a basic aniline dye followed by an iodine mordant is referred to as:
gram-positive
In the Brown-Hopps stain, one of the differentiating solutions is:
Gallego solution
In the Verhoeff-van Gieson technique, elastic fibers stain:
blue-black to black
The most commonly used phenolic compound for reducing absorbed silver to a visible metallic state in argyrophil procedures such as Warthin-Starry is:
hydroquinone
The term "argentaffin" literally denotes a reaction wherein cells have the ability to reduce a salt of:
silver
When excessive melanin deposition interferes with examination of cellular morphology, melanin pigment can be removed by bleaching a section with:
potassium permanganate
The selectivity for nuclear staining by Harris hematoxylin can be increased by adding:
aluminum salts
A stained section mounted with a synthetic resin appears cloudy. This is most likely the result of using a mounting medium that has:
become too thick
Thionin will stain Nissl substances because Nissl substance is:
metachromatic
Filamentous structures known as "hyphae" are associated with which of the following microorganisms?

a) bacteria
b) protozoa
c) viruses
d) fungi
d) fungi
Picric acid, eosin, and tartrazine are examples of what type of dye?
plasma
Tissue composed of a network of bony trabeculae separated bby interconnecting bone marrow spaces is characteristic of:
cancellous bone
Which of the following is the oxidizer in the Snook and Laidlaw methods for demonstrating reticulin fibers?

a) periodic acid
b) phophomolybdic acid
c) ferric ammonium sulfate
d) potassium permanganate
potassium permanganate
The second differentiating solution used in the Weil method contains sodium borate and:
potassium ferricyanide
The property of "acid fastness" appears to be related to the walls of organisms that contain:
lipid
A method sometimes used for increasing the diffusion rate of dye molecules and thereby increasing the rate of staining is bye increasing the ___ of the dye solution.
temperature
Which of the following groups of dyes are generally used for counterstaining?

a) metanil yellow, methylene blue, Prussian blue
b) methylene blue, methyl green, nuclear fast red
c) eosin, phloxine, carmine
d) eosin, metanil yellow, orcein
b) methylene blue, methyl green, nuclear fast red
Which of the following connective tissue components is sudanophilic?

a) elastin
b) reticulin
c) adipose
d) cartilage
c) adipose
A technique for demonstrating calcium wherein sections immersed in silver nitrate solution are exposed to bright light is the:
von Kossa
In the Holzer method, glial fibers are stained with:
crystal violet
Commonly used mordants for making hematoxylin solutions are:
ammonium aluminum sulfate and ferric ammonium sulfate
Microscopic examination of a bone marro aspirate smear stained with Giemsa shows blue-gray erythrocytes and blue leukocytes. The most likely explanation for this result is that the:
staining solution is too alkaline
Tissue from which of the following organs provide the best control for reticulin stains?

a) heart
b) uterus
c) liver
d) lung
c) liver
In the Masson trichome procedure, after staining with Biebrich scarlet-acid fuchsin, sections are differentiated with:
phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid
Which of the following is an example of a basic dye?

a) toluidine blue
b) ponceau S
c) orange G
d) acridine orange
a) toluidine blue
Nissl substance is predominantly composed of:
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Two controls may be necessary to check the strength of a phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin solution, depending on the purpose of the stain. The correct control pair is striated muscle and:
brain
Aldehyde fuchsin to be used for elastic stains is generally stable for:
3 to 4 weeks at 4⁰C
A combination method for demonstrating fat and myelin in frozen sections of brain is the Luxol fast blue stain combine with:
oil red O
A possible cause of poor staining by Gomori aldehyde fuchsin solution is that:

a) fresh paraldehyde was used
b) the dye was not the correct color index
c) hydrochloric acid was used
d) 70% ethanol was used as the dye solvent
b) the dye was not the correct color index
Argentaffin procedures can be made more specific for melanin by first oxidizing non-melanin reducing substances using:
iodine
In the Gomori technique, sodium urate crystals are stained with:
methenamine-silver
Granules found in cells of the adrenal medulla that appear brown when fixed in Orth solutions are called:
chromaffin
The bacteria Legionella pneumophila can be demonstrated using which staining method?
Steiner
Some dye solutions are made colorless by reduction, used for identification of specific tissue components, and then reoxidized to restore the color. The term applied to these colorless compounds is:
leuco
In neurons, chromatolysis refers to the loss of:
Nissl substance
Because melanin can bind and reduce silver without the use of a separate reducing agent, it is said to be:
argentaffin
In silver impregnation methods, gold chloride is used as a(n):
toner
A staining method for distinguishing muscle, elastic fibers, and collagen/reticular fibers from one another is:

a) Movat pentachrome
b) Mallory aniline blue
c) Lillie allochrome
d) Mallory PTAH
a) Movat pentachrome
In the Hotchkiss-McManus PAS technique, polysaccharides present in fungal alls are oxidized by:
periodic acid
The connective tissue cells actively involved in wound repair are:
fibroblasts
The most appropriate method demonstrating acid-fast organisms that are difficult to stain by other methods is the ___ method.
Wade
In acid-fast staining, drying of the section after carbol-fuchsin staining should be avoided because repeated attempts at removing the insoluble compound formed by drying may result in:
complete decolorization of organisms
The process by which the mineral content of tissue can be studied following removal of organic tissue components is called:
microincineration
Insoluble compounds that resist decolorization with ether-acetone are noted on microscopic evaluation of a control section stained with the Brown-Hopps stain. The presence of these compounds is probably due to:
sections being allowed to dry during staining
In staining methods demonstrating reticulin, potassium permanganate, phosphomolybdic acid, and periodic acid function as:
oxidizers
To demonstrate degenerating myelin, the Marchi method uses:
osmium tetroxide
A phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin solution can be ripened for immediate use by adding:
potassium permanganate
The staining of simple fats with lipid-soluble dyes depends on:
physical processes
Two eosinophilic tissue components that may be difficult to distinguish mophologically are:
collagen and smooth muscle
Small amounts of ferric iron are normally found in the:
spleen
Which of the following methods uses ammoniacal silver cabronate for impregnation of neurofibrils:

a) Rio-Hortega
b) Nonidez
c) Holzer
d) Marchi
a) Rio-Hortega
Sections are stained with Harris hematoxylin for 5 minutes and then treated with dilute hydrochloric acid. This type of staining is referred to as:
regressive
The color range seen in Romanowsky stains is the result of:
the combination of derivatives of methylene blue with eosin
The major disadvantage of using crystal violet technique for the demonstration of amyloid is that:
the preparation is not permanent
A tissue has been fixed in NBF. To acheive optimum results with Mallory PTAH stain, the microscopic sections should be:
mordanted in Zenker fixative
When checking a control slide stained with Luxol fast blue, a good stain should show a sharp differentiation between:
gray and white matter
Colophonium (rosin) is used in the Wohlback-Giemsa technique to:
differentiate the tissue elements
A PTAH staining solution produces the best results when it is:
allowed to oxidize naturally
Mycobacterium tuberculosis may be demonstrated with which of the following stains?

a) crystal violet
b) leucofuchsin
c) acid fuchsin
d) carbol-fuchsin
d) carbol-fuchsin
Which of the following is a hydrophobic mounting medium?

a) synthetic resin
b) gelatin
c) glycerol
d) gum syrup
a) synthetic resin
Spirochetes in fixed tissue are best demonstrated by:
metallic impregnation
Sections stained with oil-soluble dyes must be mounted in a medium which:
will retain lipids
Fite, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Kinyoun are names associated with:
microorganisms
In the Feulgen reaction, hydrochloric acid reacts with DNA to create:
aldehyde groups
Tissue from which of the following organs should be selected as a control for the alcian blue technique (pH 2.5)?

a) skin
b) kidney
c) muscle
d) colon
d) colon
the silver nitrate technique of Fontana may be used to demonstrate:
argentaffin cells
Sections were stained using the microwave oven. The tissue at the top of the slide stained darker than that at the bottom portion. To prevent this from happening in the future:
remove the slides from the oven and agitate solution
The purpose of diastase in a PAS stain is to:
combine with disaccharide sugars
One of the components demonstrated in a section stained with Luxol fast blue and counterstained with cresyl echt violet is/are:
Nissl substance
An alcian blue stain at pH 2.5 has been requested, but no alcian blue is available. Which of the following procedures could be preformed to give equivalent results?

a) Luxol fast blue
b) periodic acid-Schiff
c) colloidal iron
d) mucicarmine
c) colloidal iron
In the Weil stain, borax ferricyanide differentiates the stain by:
oxidation
Regressive hematoxylin staining is defined as:
first overstaining, then differentiating
Which of the following may be used to stain glycogen, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins?

a) perioxidase
b) Sudan black B
c) periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)
d) nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)
c) periodic acid-schiff (PAS)
A fresh solution of equal parts of potassium ferrocyanide and hydrochloric acid gives a positive reaction with:
iron
Bouin-fixed tissue is unsatisfactory for:
the Feulgen reaction
Which of the following procedures should be selected for the demonstration of axons?

a) Luxol fast blue
b) Bodian
c) cresyl echt violet
d) Holzer
b) Bodian
A mordant in combination with a dye:
forms a dye lake
Delafield hematoxylin is most commonly aged with:
light
Generally, acid dyes are differentiated in solutons that are wearkly:
basic
An amphoteric substance is one that can act as a(n):
acid or base
The type of staining in which a weak solution of stain is used with the assumption that it will be differentially absorbed by various structures is called:
direct
Microscopic sections stained with H&E show a lack of nuclear staining even though the hematoxylin is well-ripened and all other solutions are fresh. Which of the following factors could explain the poor result?

a) the slides were left too long in the neutralizer
b) prolonged storage of wet tissue in unbuffered formalin
c) the pH of the hematoxylin is between 2 an 2.4
d) the embedding paraffin is too hot
b) prolonged storage of wet tissue in unbuffered formalin
Microscopic review of H&E-stained sections reveals that the eosin is very pale. This is most likely due to:
inadequate rinsing after neutralization
The staining mechanism whereby dye adheres to the surface of structures is called:
adsorption
Weigert hematoxylin solution is generally unsatisfactory for use after 3 to 4:
days
In a routine staining series, slides placed in xylene for clearing prior to coverslipping have an opaque appearance. This is most likely due to incomplete:
dehydration
Tissue sections were stained for the recommended time with an H&E procedure using Harris hematoxylin. A quality control check shows pale nuclear staining. A likely cause of this could be:
too much time in the differentiated solution
Dyes used for nuclear staining are:
basic
A stock solution of Harris hematoxylin is being prepared for use in the routine H&E procedure. To make it an effective nuclear stain, the dye must be:
oxidized