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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Identify each of 3 Loose Connective tissue type by sight
Areolar, Fat, Reticular
-found in subcutaneous layer (under skin)
-found anywhere Areolar cells are found
-protects, store energy, insulates
-forms supporting structure, or stroma, or many organs
Identify each of 3 Dense Connective tissue type by sight. How is this special?
Dense Regular
Dense Irregular
-these contain more & thicker fibers spread densely among cells
-found in tendons & ligaments
-can withstand tension along axis of fiber
Dense Regular
-found in sheets underneath the eperdermis (skin)
-can withstand pulling forces
Dense Irregular
-found in lungs & elastic arteries
-can recoil after stretching
Book description of :Areolar connective tissue
= collagen fiber + elastic fiber + reticular fiber + & several kinds of cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cell, adipocytes & mast ells) embedded in semifluid ground subsance
-located right under skin,
Book description of :Adipose connective tissue
adipocytes (specialized in storing trilycerides (fats)
-around heart & kidney
Book description of :Reticular connective tissue
= reticular cells + reticular fibers
*reticular means deeper region
-stroma (supporting framework) of liver, spleen, lymph nodes,
-forms stroma of organs, bind together smooth muscle tissue cells, filters & removes worn-out blood cells in spleen & microbes in lymph nodes
Book description of :Dense Regular connective tissue
= collagen fibers in 'bundles' waves + fibrolasts in rows between bundles
-forms tendons (attach muscle to bone), ligaments (attach bone to bone)
(in picture) matrix looks shiny white!
-strong attachment between structures
Book description of :Dense Irregular connective tissue
= mostly collagen fibers + (a few) fibroblasts
Book description of :Elastic connective tissue
= freely branching elastic fibers + fibroblasts in between fibers
-located in organs that need to be stretched: lung, arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes, vocal cords, penis & vertebrae
Use carbonic dioxide & carbonic acid in soln as an example of equilibrium
see chap 3 ?
Connective tissue
-consist of cells & a matrix of ground substance & fibers
-ahs abundant matric w/few cells
-has neerve supply (except for cartilage) highly vascular (except for caratilage, tendons & ligaments)
-all cells are derived from mesnechymal cells
Connective tissue Cell types
1. fibroblasats
2 plasma cells - secrete antibodies
3 mast cells - produce hstamine
4 adipocytes - store fate
5 white blood cells - migrate from blood in response to infections
What makes up the matrix of connective tissue?
gound substance (which supports & binds cells together, & provide a medium for exchange of materis) + fibers
Endocrine glands
-secrete hormones into blood
Where are pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelium found?
-lines upper respiratory
-contains goblet cells
Where are pseudostratified (non-ciliated) columnar epithelium found?
-lines ducts of many glands, male urethra
-no goblet cells
Where are simple ciliated simple columnar epithelium found?
-found in parts of upper respiratory tract, where it moves foreign particle strapped in mucus our of hte resp tract
Where are simple nonciliated simple columnar epithelium found?
-lines most of GI tract
-specialized cells contain icrovill for absorption
-goblet cells secrete mucus
Where are simple cuboidal epithelium found?
-covers ovaries, kidneys, eyes, & lining of some glandular ducts
What type of cell is Endothelium ?
Simple squamous
-lines the heart 7 blood vessels
Epithelial layers (study outline)
Epithelium is aranged in sheets & all are attached to a basement membrane. Eepithelial layers czn be simple (1 layer), stgratigied (seeral layers) or psudostraaatified (1 layer that appears to be several) Cell shpes may e squamous (flat), cuboidal (square or cubelike) columnar (rectoangular) or tarnsitional.
Cell Junctions
tight junctions form fluid-tight zip-lock seals between cells. Gap junctions allow electrical & chemical signals to pass through.
Types of tissues & their origins (study outline)
Tissue = a group of cells that have similar embryological orgin 7 specialized for a specific function. thre are 4 types; epithelial, connctive, muscle & nervous.
what substances are found in ground substance?
water + polysaccharides (hylauronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, etc.)
Collagen fibers
-are composed of collagen
-are found in large amounts in bone, tendons & ligaments
Elastic fibers
-found in skin, blood vessel walls & lungs
-made of elastin, fibrillin & other glycoprotein
Reticular fibers
- made of collagen + glycoprotein
-found around fat cells, nerve fibers & skeletal & smooth muscle cells
The 3 types of fibers found in matrix & their function
Collagen fibers

Elastic fibers

Reticular fibers
Where do mature connective tissue come from and what types are there?
-loose or dense connective tissue, cartilage, bone tissue, blood tissue & lymph
name 3 loose connective tissue
Areolar connective, reticular connective & adipose
what 3 fibers do areolar tissues consists of and where is it found?
-found underneath the skin, in mucous membrane, around blood vessels, nerves & body organs
what 3 fibers do reticular tissues consists of and where is it found?
reticular fibers + reticular cells
-in liver, spleen & lymph nodes
what fibers do adipose tissues consists of and where is it found?v
-found under skin, around organs & yellow bone marrow
what tissues do dense connective tissues consists of and where is it found?
dense regular
dense irregular
what tissues do dense regular connective tissues consists of and where is it found?
= parallel bundles of collagen fibes + fibroblasts
-forms tendons,ligaments aponeuroses
what tissues do dense irregular connective tissues consists of and where is it found?
= randomly arranged collagen fibes + few fibroblasts
-found in fascia, dermis of skn, membrane around organs
what tissues do elastic connective tissues consists of and where is it found?
= branching elastic fibers + fibroblasts
-foundi n large arteries, lungs, trachea & bronchial tubes
what tissues do cartilage tissues consists of and where is it found?
Chondrocytes with a rubbery matrix (chondroitin sulfate) containing collagen & elastic fibers
what tissues do elastic cartilage consists of and what is it for?
elastic cartilage maintains shape of organs
what tissues do bone tissue consists of and where is it found?
= a matrix of mineral salts + collagen fibers that make bones hard, osteocytes in lacunae
-functions to support, protects, helps movements, stores minerals _ houses blood-forming tissues
waht are found in blood tissues and what are its functions?
= blood plasma _ formed elements (rbc, wbc, patelets)
-function to transport oxygen + carbond dioxide, provide immunity + blood clotting
what tissues do epithelical membrane consists of and what're the diff types?
= a layer overlying a connective tissues
examples: mucuous, serous, cutaneous
Mucousse- line cavities that open to exterio, ex: GI tract
SErous - line closed caavities 9pleura, pericardium peritoneum) & over the organs in the cavities
Synovial membrane - line joint cavities, bursae, tendons shealths - constis of areolar connctive tissue instead of epithelium
What does mucous membrane line and what does it consist of?
Mucus- line cavities that open to exterior, ex: GI tract
What does serous membrane line and what does it consist of?
Serous - line closed caavities 9pleura, pericardium peritoneum) & over the organs in the cavities
What does synovial membrane line and what does it consist of?
- line joint cavities, bursae, tendons shealths - consists of areolar connctive tissue instead of epithelium
3 components used to classify connective tissue
cell, fibers, ground substance
Connective tissue fibers arranged in bundles & give strength & flexibilty to a tissue
collagen fibers
the connective tissue responsible for secretign fibers + ground substance
the membrane lining a body cavity that opens to the exterior
a single layer of flat cells, found where filtration (kidney) or diffusion (lungs) are important
Simple squamous
in superficial part of skin, provides protection from heat, microbe & chemicals
keratinized (stratified squamous = a given!) epithelium
-cube-shpaed cells, found i n kidney tha funciton in secretion & absoption
simple cuboidal
-lines upper respiratory tract & uterine tubes; wave like motion of cilia propel material through the lumen
Ciliated (simple columnar = always + a given ) epithelium
-found in urinary bladder, contains cells that can change shape (stretch/relax)
transitional epithelium
-found in linings of digestive, reproductive & urinary tracts
-contains cells w/microvilli + goblet cesll,
nonciliated (simple columnar) epithelium
what cells can be ciliated or nonciliated?
simple columnar epithelium
-contains cells that are all attached to the basement membrane
-some do not reach the surface
-those that do secrete mucus or bear cilia at apical surface
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
a rare type that has mainly protective function
stratified cuboidal epithelium
the tissue/cells from which all other connective tissues come from
connective tissues w/a clear liquid matrix that flows i n lymphatic vessels
connective tissues consisting of several kinds of cells, containing all 3 fiber types randomly arrangd, fundin subcutaneous layer of skin
Areolar connective tissue
a loose connective tissues for fat storage
adipose tissues
tissue w/irregularly arranged collagen fibers found in dermis of skin
dense irregular connective tissue
tissue found in lungs that's strong
elastic connective tissue
tissue that afford flexibility at joints & reduces joint friction
hyaline cartilage
tissue that provides strength & rigidity & is the strongest of the 3 types of cartilage
bundle of collagen arranged in parallel patterns, compose tendons & ligament
dense regular
tissue that contains reticular fibers & reticular cells & form stroma of certain organs (spleen)
reticular connective
tissue that forms internal framework of body
connective w/formed elements suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma
this cell junction allows epithelial cells in a tissue to communicate; enables nerve/muscle impulse to spread rapidly between cells
gap junction
this cell junction prevents organ contents from leaking into blood or surrounding tissues
tight junction
function of basement membrane
supports epithelium
-works as a filter in kidney
what's he most numerous connective tissue cells & what's its function?
fibroblasts (others are elastic, reticular & collagen)
-it secrets the fibers & ground substance of the matrix
what ground substance binds cells together, lubricates joints, hels maintain shape of eyeballs.
hyaluronic acid
what ground substance provides suport & adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin & blood vessels?
Choindroitin sulfaate
why do connectve tissues need fibers & what're the 3 types?
collagen, elastic & reticular
-collagen (colla = glue)
-often appears in bundles
tell me about the 2nd type of fiber & what it's good for.
Elastic - smaller than collagen, composed of elastin, abundant in skin, blood vessel walls & lung tissue
tell me about the rnd type of fiber & what it's good for.
REticular (reticul = net)
- consists of collagen arranged in fine bundles & glycoprotein coating
- much thinner than collagen fibers & form branching networks
-provides support like collagen
-abundant in reticular connective tissues
stroma = bed or covering - of many soft organs (spleen, lymph nodes
-also helps form basement membrane
another word for mesothelium or the most baic tpye of epithelium?
simple squamous epithelium
Latin meaning of words: serous/serosa
serous = water
Thsi gives you complete understanding of how things are names: convert simple squamous epithelium to ____________________
simple squamous epithelium of blood vessels
what cells line tubes?
simple squamous & simple cuboidal
How do you identify Transitional epithelium on picture?
1) the typically puffy surface cells.
2) many layers of cells
What tissue type surrounds a single blood capillary?
simple squamous epithelium
What tissue type lines blood vessel?
simple squamous epithelium
What tissue type is found at the skin?
keratinized stratified squamous
Where do nuclei of simple cuboidal line up: top or bottom?
on the bottom, or basal edge
What tissue type surrounds a single blood capillary?
simple squamous epithelium
What tissue type lines blood vessel?
simple squamous epithelium
What tissue type is found at the skin?
keratinized stratified squamous
Where do nuclei of simple cuboidal line up: top or bottom?
on the bottom, or basal edge
which one is when the cells don't line up?
psudostratified ciliated - all bec cells are differnet shapes & the nuclei don't line up?
do goblet cells always come up to top?
what's a messy matrix w/mnny different types of fibers loosely arranged?
a matrix of lots of cells & reticular fibers
-fibrocytes hard to see
fibers are parallet, fibrocytes scattered
dense regular
Randomly arranged collagen fiber,
dense irregular
Main difference between loose & dense tissue
Main difference between
Name 3 components of connective tissues
biers, cells, ground substance
Name 3 fiber types
collagen, elastic, reticular
Name cell types
1) fibroblasts - produce fiber
2) blood ( = rbc + wbc)
- is alos a connective tissue
-its ground substance is plasma
What tissue is lymphoid?