Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/84

Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bones come in many shapes and...
sizes.
Bones are classified by their...
shape.
Long bones are longer than they are...
wide.
A long bone has a shaft plus two distinct...
ends.
Long bones are named for their shape, not their...
size.
Short bones are roughly ... shaped.
cubed.
Short bones occur in the wrist and the...
ankle.
Bones shaped like a sesame seed are ... bones.
sesamoid
Sesamoid bones form in...
tendons.
The patella is a...
sesamoid bone.
Short bones can act to alter the direction of pull of a...
tendon.
Flat bones are thin, flattened, and usually somewhat...
curved.
Most cranial bones are ... bones.
flat
The ribs, sternum, and scapula are ... bones.
flat
Irregular bones have various...
shapes.
The vertebrae and hip bones are ... bones.
irregular
The external layer of bone is...
compact bone.
Internal to the compact bone is the…
spongy bone.
Spongy bone is also called…
trabecular bone.
The honeycombs of small needle-like pieces of bone that make up trabecular bone are called…
trabeculae.
The shaft that forms the axis of a long bone is called the…
diaphysis.
The ends of long bones are called…
epiphyses.
1 diaphysis:
2 epiphyses
The joint surface of each epiphysis is covered with a thin layer of…
articular cartilage.
Unlike cartilage, bone is well...
vascularized.
3% - 11% of blood in the body is in the…
skeleton.
The disk of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone is called the…
epiphyseal line.
The main vessels serving the diaphysis are a nutrient … and a nutrient …
artery/vein
The nutrient artery and vein of the diaphysis run through the…
nutrient foramen.
The nutrient artery of the diaphysis first runs inwards to supply the…
marrow.
Branches extend outward from the nutrient artery of the diaphysis to feed the…
compact bone.
The interior of all bones consist of…
spongy tissue.
The very center of the diaphysis (does/does not) contain bone tissue.
does not
The cavity at the center of long bones is called the…
medullary cavity.
The medullary cavity is full of… bone marrow.
yellow
Marrow cavity:
medullary cavity
Spaces between the trabeculae are also filled with…
marrow.
Osteogenic means…
bone producing.
Osteoblasts are…
bone generators.
Osteoclasts are…
bone breakers.
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts remodel…
bone surfaces
A connective tissue membrane that covers the outside of bone is called…
periosteum.
Periosteum does not cover the…
epiphyses.
The periosteal membrane has … sub layers.
2
Bone tissue consists of cells separated by a ... matrix.
extracellular
Bone matrix contains ... crystals.
mineral
Long cylindrical structures running parallel to the long axis of bone are called...
osteons.
Functionally, osteons can be viewed as miniature...
weight bearing pillars.
Structurally, an osteon is group of...
concentric tubes.
Each of the concentric tubes in an osteon is called a...
lamella.
A lamella is a layer of bone...
matrix.
In a lamella, collagen and mineral crystals align and run in a...direction.
single
Rings of lamella are ... to one another.
concentric.
Adjacent lamellae run in (opposite/the same) direction/s to one another.
opposite
The lamellae of bone ... crack formation.
inhibit
Through the core of each osteon runs a...
central canal.
The Haversian canal of the osteon is also known as the...
central canal.
All internal bone cavities are lined with...
endosteum.
The Haversian canal is lined with...
endosteum
The Haversian canal contains its own ... fibers.
nerve
Blood vessels which supply nutrients to osteons are found in the...
Haversian canal/central canal
Connecting the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to the Haversian canal are ... canals.
perforating
Volkmann's canals are also known as ... canals.
perforating
Through every osteon runs a central canal containing its own ... vessels.
blood
Mature, spider shaped bone cells are called...
osteocytes.
Osteocytes are ... bone cells.
mature
Osteocytes are ... shaped.
spider
Lacunae are small cavities in the...
bone matrix.
The bodies of osteocytes occupy small cavities in the bone matrix called..
lacunae.
The spider legs of osteocytes branch off and occupy thin tubes called...
canaliculi.
"Little canals"
canaliculi
Canaliculi connect neighboring ... to one another.
lacunae
Canaliculi can connect lacunae to the ... of the central canal.
capillaries
Canaliculi touch the extensions of other osteocytes to form... junctions.
gap
Bone matrix is too solid and impermeable to act as a ... medium.
diffusion
Osteocytes are essential for maintaining bone...
matrix.
If osteocytes die, the surrounding bone matrix is...
reabsorbed.
Circumferential lamellae occur at the ... and ... layers of compact bone.
external and internal
Lamellae that extends around the entire circumference of the diaphysis is called...
Circumferential lamellae
Interstitial lamellae also known as ... lamellae.
incomplete.
Interstitial lamellae are the remains of old...
osteons.
Each trabecula of the spongy bone contains several layers of...
lamellae
Spongy bone is less complex than...
compact bone.
The osteocytes of trabecula recieeve their nutrients from the ... surrounding the trabecula.
endosteum