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58 Cards in this Set

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Develpomental bone disorders include achondroplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta and ________.
osteopetrosis
Achondroplasia cuases dwarfism, a defect in endochondral ossification. It is autosomal dominant and caused by a mutation in ________, a gene coding for collagen.
FGFR3
Why are flat bones (eg. Calvarium) not affected by achondroplasia?
flat = intramembranous not endochondal ossification
This bone disease is a genetic defect of type __ collagen resulting in fragile bones, blue sclera, floppy mitral valve and dentinogenesis imperfecta.
1, Osteogenesis imperfecta
Of the four types of osteogenesis imperfecta type __ is most common and type ___ is lethal.
1,2
Osteopetrosis is a defect in _________ function resulting in defective bone remodeling causing dense, weak and painful bones. Bone marrow transplants result in normal function of these cells,
osteoclast
________ can be pyogenic (staph aureus) or tuberculous (of the spine - Pott's disease), and forms "islands of necrotic bone" (sequestrum) normally found at the ______ of long bones.
Osteomyelitis, metaphesis
Osteomeyelitis is caused by bacteremia, bone fracture, surgery, spread from adjacent tissue and ______ _______ leading to infections of the mandible a common site due to limited flow.
dental infections
Radiographs, especially __________, reveal the sequestrum and irregular radiolucencies of osteomyelitis and are used in conjuction with histologic examinations and ____ _____ for diagnostic purposes.
CT scans, bone scans
The distinguishing symptoms of osteomyelits include tooth mobility and _______ _______.
altered sensation
Tx for osteomyelitis includes antibiotics, debridement, decortication and hyperbaric O2. T/F
TRUE
Avascular necrosis is a bone ______ secondary to a circulatory disturbance caused by trauma, emboli, endodartitis (from chemo/rad.s) or idiopathically. Examples include ___________, ischemic / aseptic necrosis and NICO.
infarction, osteonecrosis
Clinically avascular necrosis is commonly found in ____ bones of children and _____ ______ of the elderly.
carpal, femoral heads
Osteoporosis, rickets, osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism are forms of ________ disturbances.
metabolic
The etiology of primary osteoporosis is unknown while secondary is caused by inadequate vit. __ and ___ intake, immobilization and some medications.
D, Ca+
Overall aposition < resorption in osteoporosis leading to thin, brittle bones prone to fracture. T/F
TRUE
Risk factors of osteoporosis include: = Female (Asian), __________, inactivity, heredity and dietary deficiency. T/F
post-menopausal *also excessive corticosteroids
Diagnosis of osteoporosis is made via bone ____ tests and _____. Treatment includes biphosphonates (dec. osteoclast activity), calcitonin, Ca+ and ________ supplementation.
density, x-rays, estrogen
Inadequate bone mineralization due to a vitamin D disturbances (affects phosphate/Ca+ metabolism) in _______ is termed osteomalacia and in children ________.
adults, rickets
Reduced absorption of Ca+ and PO4 lowers serum levels. The body compensates for this by releasing _____ causing resorption of bone.
PTH --> inc Ca+(serum) along with inc renal Ca+ retention and excretion of PO4.
Rachitic rosary, craniotabes, bow legs and fractures are endochondral ossification disturbances due to _______.
Rickets
Osteomalacia --> soft bones, fractures and muscle weakness due to?
decreased serum Ca+
______ dental eruption and ______ mineralized teeth are caused by Rickets.
delayed, poorly
List in order from most to least common etiologies of hyperparathyroidism: parathyroid - hyperplasia, adenoma, carcinoma and chronic renal disease.
parathyroid-- 1. adenoma 2. hyperplasia 3. carcinoma ****chronic renal is a secondary cause
Clinical signs of hyperparathyroidism include renal stones, painful bones (cysts, __________ - giant cell aggregates), ________ moans (ulcers) and psychic groans (seizures) do to Ca+/PO4 imbalance.
brown tumors of hyperPTH, abdominal
_____________ could be the first manefestation of hyperfarathyroidism.
CGCG central giant cell granuloma
Treatment for hyperthyroid includes surgical removal of the affected gland (neoplasia) or 3-4 glands due to ______.
hyperplasia
A 45 year old British patient presents with thick skull, deafness, back pain and bowed legs. Lab tests show elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and normal Ca+/PO4. The bone biopsy shows mosaic "reversal lines" and a "cotton wool" appearance is found on his ceph. He is suffering from _______.
pagets disease (>40 yrs old)
Peget's disease also causes enlargement of the maxilla, spacing of teeth and an increased risk of _________.
osteosarcoma -- assume if >50 yrs old
Comminuted fractures have multiple fracture lines and fragmentsC. T/F
TRUE
Complicated fractures are ________.
infected
Hematoma formation --> granuloma tissue --> bony callus = steps of fracture healing. T/F
TRUE
_______ tumors of the bone include, osteochondroma, chondroma and osteoma.
Benign
________ is a shaped benign growth of both bone and cartilage with the marrow space contiunous with the rest of the bone.
Osteochondroma
Chondromas are benign growths of cartilage found mostly in small bones. Some undergo malignant transformation especially in the ____________.
maxilla and mandible
Osteomas are a benign growth of bone often found in the head and neck. T/F
True - often found in the sinuses
CGCG are painless, _______, well demarcated radiolucencies found in the mand/maxilla anterior to the first molars caused by overproliferation of giant cells and fibroblasts.
solitary
Malignant tumors of the bone include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and ______ sarcoma. Miscellaneous tumors include ________ _______, lymphomas and Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Ewings, Multiple myeloma
Head and neck osteosarcoma etiology is mostly unknown although irradiation and Pagets increase risk. These are characterised by their "____-____" lytic appearance and peripheral "sunray" periosteal reaction.
moth-eaten
T/F Teeth near underlying osteosarcomas are usually vital.
True
________ are malignant tumors of cartilage-producing cells affecting __ to __ year old patients and have a tendency to metstasize to the lungs. Tx = surgery.
Chondrosarcoma, 35-60
Cartilagenous lesions of the jaw (anterior maxilla) are usually benign. T/F
False - all should be considered malignant until proven benign
"Small round blue cell" tumors (gene rearrangement) are found in a biopsy of the _______ of a childs tibia suffering from ______ _______.
diaphysis, Ewings sarcoma
Which is most common in children osteosarcoma or Ewings?
osteosarcoma = #1, Ewings = #2
Tx for Ewings includes surgical excision, chemo and _______, known as the big three.
radiotherapy
Most common metastatic cancers to attack bone are ______ and ______.
breast and prostate.
Osteosarcomas are more common than mateastatic carcinomas (to bone) in s. T/F
False - metastatic to bone = #1 in s --> uncommon to jaws but of those which do 80% to mandible.
A malignant glandlike tumor found in the mandible of a 65 year old patient is most likely a ________.
metastatic adenocarcinoma
A patient complains of morning joint pain, stiffness, crepitus and swelling due to to the breakdown of articular cartilage and formation of bone cysts, spurs and sclerosis. The patient is most likely suffering from_______.
osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a ________ joint disease usually found in _________ joints due to wear and tear and inflamation.
degenerative, weight-bearing (knee, hip, vertebrae)
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic __________ disease affecting small _______ joints found 4:1 in women.
autoimmune, synovial
Pathogenesis of RA is as follows: inflamation of joint --> ingrowth of vessels --> proliferation of synovial cells --> _______ ______ --> cartilage destruction --> ______ ______.
granulation tissue (pannus), joint spacing
Juvenile RA affects small joints. T/F
False - affects large joints
Infectious arthritis is caused by what diease?
Lyme
Hyperuricemia (purine metabolism) --> excess uric acid --> crystalization in joints, tissues and kidneys --> phagocytosis of crystals = cell lysis --> inflamation. This pathogenesis is charactieristic of _______?
gout
Gout primarily affects males/females and is genetic/hormonal?
Males 95%, both genetic and hormonal
Gout develops __ to __ years after the onset of hyperuricemia commonly in the ___ ___.
15-30, big toe
Gout can be classified as acute or chronic. Acute causes pain for 2-3 days while chronic is less painful but displays joint _______ and subcutaneous uric acid deposits called ______.
deformation, tophi