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38 Cards in this Set

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Spherical
divides body into equivalent, or mirrored halves. This type of symmetry is found rare in animals.
Radial
similiar pieces when divided in the longitudinal plane, tubular, case, or bowl shaped.
sponges, hydras, jellyfish, sea urchins
Bi- radial
like radial except has a part that is either single or paired
bilateral symmetry
applies to animals that can be divided along a sagittal plane into two mirrored portions -- right and left halves.
anterior
used to designate the head end
posterior
the opposite or tail end
dorsal
the back side
ventral
the front or belly side
Medial
refers to the midline of the body
lateral
to the sides
distal
parts are farther from the middle of the body
proximal
parts are nearer, attachment at distance
frontal plane
called coronal divides a bilateral body into dorsal and ventral halves by running through the anteroposterior axis and the right left axis at the right angles
sagital plane
down middle, the plane dividing an animal into right and left halves
transverse plane
also called cross section, would cut through a dorsoventral and a right left axis at right angles to both the saggital and frontal planes and would result in anterior and posterior portions.
acoelomate
no body cavity surrounding the gut, worms
Pseudocoelomate
these animals have a tube within a tube arrangement as do animals with a true coelom. opening from mouth to anus. no lining.
Eucoelomate
true coelom lined by mesodermal peritoneum. Formed by schizocorlour and enterocoelous.
schizocoelous
splitting of mesodermal layers
enterocoelous
formation the coelom comes from pouches of the primative gut or archenteron
Metamerism
serial repetition of similar body segments along the longitudinal axis of the body
Metamerism
serial repetition of similar body segments along the longitudinal axis of the body. Each segment is called a metamere or somite.
cephalization
is found in bilaterally symmetrical animals. The concentration of nervous tissue and sense organs in a head bestows obvious advantages to an animal moving through its enviorment head first.
How many phyla of multicellular animals do zoologists recognize today?
a) 32
b) 64
c) 100
a) 32
A major evolutionary innovation appearing within bilateral animals is a fluid-filled space that surrounds the gut. This space, either a pseudocoelom or a true coelom, provides a tube-within-a-tube arrangement that allows much greater flexibility of the body cavity.
True or False
True
What type of tissue covers an external or internal surface to provide a protective covering?
a) Ciliated cuboidal epithelium
b) squamous epithelium
c) Hyaline cartilage
d) Cardiac muscle
b) squamous epithelium
Which of the following tissue types would be closely connected for functional reasons?
a) Striated muscle fibers and motor nerve endings
b) Bone and squamous epithelium
c) Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and cardiac muscle
a) Striated muscle fibers and motor nerve endings
Which of the following is NOT a connective tissue?
a) blood
b)bone
c) cariledge
d) cardiac muscle
d) cardiac muscle
Skeletal muscle is distinguished from smooth muscle in that the former has...
A) Striations
B) Multiple nuclei
C)Extremely long, cylindrical cells
D)Voluntary contractions under conscious cerebral control
E)All of the above are correct
E)All of the above are correct
Which of the following is NOT a form of symmetry?
a) Spherical
b) Radial
c) Biradial
d)Bilateral
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
Which of the following opposing pairs is mismatched?
A) Anterior-posterior
B) Dorsal-ventral
C) Distal-proximal
D) None of the above opposing pairs is mismatched
D) None of the above opposing pairs is mismatched
A true coelom differs from a pseudocoelom in that the former...
A) Has a lining of mesoderm
B) Has a lining of digitized metameric somites
C) Has a lining of schizocoelous amoeboid parenchyma
A) Has a lining of mesoderm
Which of the following generally correlates with an increase in anatomical complexity
A) An increase in body size
B) Improved homeostasis (e.g., temperature regulation)
C) Reduced energy cost of locomotion
D) All of the above correlate with an increase in anatomical complexity
D) All of the above correlate with an increase in anatomical complexity
During a dissection, a zoologist made a cut beginning with the dorsal surface and concluded between the pectoral and pelvic appendages on the ventral surface. This cut would be described as a cut through which plane?
A) Frontal
B) Sagittal
C) Transverse
D) Discoidal
C) Transverse
Epithelium may be modified to form...
A) Glands
B) Connective tissue
C) Lacunae
D) Ground substance
A) Glands
Which of the following is a pseudocoelomate animal?
A) A sponge
B) A nematode
C) A fish
B) A nematode
In animals with enterocoelous development, the coelom comes from pouches of the archenteron

True or False
True
Transitional epithelium is a type of stratified epithelium, and is found in the urinary tract of vertebrates.
True or False
True