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72 Cards in this Set

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What is the process by which the body's internal enviornment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment?
Homeostasis
What are the building blocks of living things?
Cells
List 3 kinds of cells
Absorbing cells
Assembly cells
Cells for movement
What is a group of similar cells that perform the same function?
Tissues
List 4 kinds of tissue
Muscle
Connective
Nerve
Epithelial
What tissue has the ability to contract or shorten, lines the walls of structures in the body, moves food into stomach
Muscle tissue
What kind of tissue provides support for the body and connects its parts
Connective tissue
List 3 kinds of connective tissue
Blood
Bone
Fat
What kind of tissue carries messages back and forth between the brain and spinal cord and every other part of the body
Nerve tissue
What kind of tissue forms a protective surface on the outside of your body and lines your mouth, throat, ears
Epithelial tissue
What organ contains all 4 types of tissue?
The heart
What are tissues joined together with a specific job?
An organ
What is a group of organs that work together to form a specific job?
An organ system
How many bones make up the human skeleton?
206
What holds bones together?
stringy connective tissue called LIGAMENTS
What is a gourp of connective tissue that attaches bone to muscle?
Tendons
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Provide shape and support
Allow movement
Protect tissue and organs
Store mineral (calcium and phosphorus)
Produce red blood cells
What is a dense material that contains fiber strong enough to support weight but flexible to bend?
Cartilage
Name 2 places we have cartilage
Nose and ears
What is the most abundant cartilage found in joints and forms the larynx, trachea?
Hyaline
What kind of bone is found in arms and legs to help stand and walk?
Long bones
What kind of bone is found in wrists and ankles and allows twisting and turning?
Short bones
What kind of bone has a flat surface and protects heart and brain?
Flat bones (sternum and cranium)
What kind of bone has various shapes and sizes like the vertebrae?
Irregular bones
What kind of bone is a small nodule that develops in a tendon (patella, hyoid)
Sesamoid bone
What is the central shaft of a bone?
Diaphysis
What is the thick, double-layered membrane that covers the bone - makes the bone hard and needed for bone growth and repair?
Periosteum
What is the thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the epiphysis where the bone forms a joint?
Articular cartilage
What bone tissue is the interior of the ends of bones - produces blood cells and makes bones lighter?
Spongy bone
What bone tissue provides protection and support?
Compact bone
What bone tissue is a canal in the middle of the bone and contains yellow marrow, fat, and blood vessels?
Medullary cavity
What kind of joint has no movement and joins two edges of different bones. Called a suture and found in the skull.
Immovable joint
What kind of joint permits only slight movement such as between the vertebrae?
Slightly movable
What kind of joint allows free movement - the hip and shoulder are most vulnerable?
Ball and socket joint
What kind of joint is a bone that rotates on a ring around a central axis - like the skull on its atlas rotates on the sxis (C-2)
Pivot joint
What is an oval shaped joint with a concave cavity that looks like a Lincoln log?
Saddle joint
What kind of joint is like a saddle but permits movement in 2 directions - in the wrist?
Angular joint
What kind of joint allows free movement in a single plane. Flexion and extension like the elbow and knee?
Hinge joint
What kind of joint allows one part of a carpal bone to slide from side to side over another carpal bone?
Gliding joint
What kind of joint has lubrication to move freely?
Synovial joint
What is the space between articulating bones called?
Synovial cavity
What is the name of the lublricating and cushioning saclike structures located in the elbows, knees, hips, shoulders, ankles?
Bursa
List 4 functions of bones
Provide for attachment of muscles
Form an articulation (joint)
Serve as a passageway for blood vessels and nerves
Rough surface for better attachments of muscles, tendons, ligaments
What is the junction of 2 or more bones called?
Articulation
What is the bone surface that is made to receive the rounded ends called?
Depression
What is the bone surface that is a prominent projection called - like in the vertebrae?
Process
What is the bone surface that is a large rounded articular surface called?
Hed
What is the bone surface that is a sharp, slender process - like the scapula called?
Spine
What is the bone surface that is a rounded knuckle-like process located where the bone articulates with another bone called?
Condyle
What is the bone surface that is a narrow ridge-like projection called - like the iliac crest of the hip?
Crest
What is a deep pit or depression in a bone called?
Fossa
What is a hole in a bone that allows passage of blood vessels and nerves called?
Foramen
What is the end of a long bone called?
Epiphysis
What plane divides the body into left and right?
Sagittal
What plane divides the body into upper and lower?
Transverse
What plane divides the body into the anterior and posterior portions?
Frontal
Closer to (to the trunk)
Proximal
Near the surface
Superficial
Away from the midline
Lateral
Towards the front
Anterior
Above
Superior
Toward the midline of the body
Medial
Inside
Deep
Towards the back
Posterior
Further from (the trunk)
Distal = distant
Below
Inferior
Is the head superior or inferior to the foot
Superior
Is the skin superficial or deep to bone?
Superficial
Are the toes proximal or distal to the femur?
Distal
Is the shoulder proximal or distal to the hand?
Proximal
Are the eyes medial or lateral to the nose?
Lateral
The sternum forms part of the anterior or posterior part of the chest wall?
Anterior