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60 Cards in this Set

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Name some known host cell receptor-viral protein biinding specificities for the following
CD4, CD21, erythrocyte P antigen?
CD4-->HIV Gp120

CD21-->EBV

EPA--> Parvovirus B19
Important to have high SENSITIVITY for what types of tests?
screening tests
Important to have high SPECIFICITY for what types of tests?
confirmatory tests
Paralysis of the stapedius muscle allows for wider oscilation of the stapes leading to an increased sensitivity to sound. An injury to what nerve would cause this problem?
facial nerve


note: the stapedius muscle is innervated by the stapedius nerve...a branch of the facial
Long term consequences of hydrocephalus in infants?
muscle hypertonicity & hyper-reflexia, visual disturbances, and learning disabilities
What muscle and nerve are responsible for eye adduction?
medial rectus muscle

oculomotor nerve
What structures pass into the orbit via the superior orbital fissure?
oculomotor, trochlear, abducent, branches of the opthalmic nerve (V1), and the superior opthalmic vein
Decreased compliance of the ventricle that restricts filling during diastole?
restrictive cardiomyopathy

note: cause may include amyloidosis
The clearance of this parameter is used to measure GFR?
inulin
What is the formula for the clearance of inulin that can be used to calculate GFR?
GFR=Uinulin x V/Pinulin

note: Uinulin=urine [] of inulin
V=urine flow rate
Pinulin=plasma [] of inu
Dyspnea+bibasilar crackles+S3 heart sound?
left heart failure
Decreased compliance of the lung may be caused by...
pulmonary fibrosis, insufficient surfactant, or pulmonary edema

note: pulmonary edema can be due to L heart failure
In LV failure, fluid accumulation in the lung interstitium results in what change in the lung?
decreased lung compliance
Dyspnea, HYPOtension, and TACHYcardia are sxs of what condition?
anaphylactic shock

note: EPI is the DOC
What directly stimulates K channel closure in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells?
ATP
What rxn of the TCA cycle creates a GTP that can be used by PEPCK to convert oxaloacetate to PEP in gluconeogenesis?
succinyl Coa--> succinate

note: calalyzed by succinate thiokinase
Test used to detect H. Pylori infection; a major cause of duodenal ulcer?
urease breath test
The first area of the brain damaged during global cerebral ischemia?
hippocampus
Name some NNRTIs that do not require activation via intracellular phosphorylation?
Nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz
The DOC for beta-blocker overdose?
glucagon
Drug used in the rx of pulmonary artery hypertension to blocks endothelin?
bosentan
These are gastric mucosal defects that do not penetrate the muscularis mucosa & are confined to the mucosa?
gastric erosions

note: gastric ULCERS penetrate through the submucosal layers
What are the "TORCHES" orgs that can cross the placenta and cause congenital disease?
TO=toxoplasmosis
R=rubella
C=ccytomegalovirus
HE=herpes, HIV
S=syphilis
Injury associated w/ a pelvic fracture in males?
injury to the posterior urethra
Aflatoxins from aspergillus cause what disease?
HCC=liver CA
This disease can cause degeneration of the putamen and other parts of the basal ganglia?
wilson's disease
Located medial to the insula and lateral to the globus pallidus on coronal sections?
putamen
This condition is associated w/ hypercalcemia secondary to high levels of calcitriol?
sarcoidosis

note: calcitriol increases calcium absorption from the gut
The initial event in atherosclerosis?
endothelial cell injury
Enzyme that converts glucose to sorbitol?
aldose reductase
Defective bone development that is usually associated with renal disease?
osteodystrophy
What is the response of the parathyroid during end stage kidney disease?
hyperparathyroidism


note: this leads to osteodystrophy
2 ways in which end stage kidney disease causes hypocalcemia?
retention of Phosphate

decreased synthesis of calcitriol by the kidney
Marker of mast cell activation that is released by mast cells during anaphylaxis?
tryptase
How is degranulation of mast cells accomplished?
by the crosslinking of membrane bound IgE by ag

note: results in receptor aggregation on the cell surface
Pro-carcinogens are converted to their active metabolites by these enzymes?
P450 microsomal mono-oxygenases
DM that alleviates guilty feelings through selfless service or giving?
altruism
DM that converts unacceptable feelings or drives into more socially acceptable ones?
sublimation
Refers to the proportion of individuals w/ a given genotype that express the associated phenotype
penetrance
Where multiple phenotypic manifestations result from a single gene defect?
pleiotropy
Name the 2 SERMs used in the rx of osteoporosis and breast CA but can cause endometrial hyperplasia?
tamoxifen and raloxifene
What is the only rx for homocystinuria?
pyridoxine-B6
ACUTE bacterial endocarditis is most commonly caused by this org?
Staph aureus
Causes SUBACUTE bacterial endocarditis
Strep viridians
Virus that has ds circular DNA & carries an RNA dependant DNA polymerase in its virion?
hepatitis B virus
Why must you wait 14 days inbetween giving the MAO inhibitor phenelzine and the SSRI sertraline?
allows time for the resyntheis of MAO

note: if you do not wait..it can lead to serotonin syndrome
MAO inhibitor that decreases the breakdown of NE, serotonin, and dopamine
phenelzine
Cells that are stimulated by gastrin and then stimulate the parietal cells to release gastric acid using histamine
enterochromaffin like cells (ECLs)
DOC for myoclonic seizures?
valproic acid
DOC for simple and complex partial seizures?
carbamazapine
Name the nondihydroperidine CCBs that can be used w/ beta blockers to cause bradycardia?
verapamil and diltiazem
Causes rapidly progressive dementia and myoclonic jerks while multiple vacuoles are seen in the grey matter of the brain?
creutzfeldt jakob disease
This drug should always be added to the empiric rx of meningitis in infants & immunodeficient pts to cover for listeria?
ampicillin
Irritation of this nerve by a tumor can cause diaphragmatic paralysis and recurrent hiccups?
phrenic nerve
Useful in Rxing tonic and clonic seizures but has SEs of gingival hyperplasia and generalized LAD?
phenytoin
Although a normal PCWP is seen in ARDS, an elevated PCWP would be associated w/ what type of condition in a pt?
aardiogenic cause of pulmonary edema such as PV HTN
These drugs block the tachycardia sxs experienced by diabetics during hypoglycemia?
beta blockers

note: beta blockers mask the sxs of hypoglycemia
This is when some tRNA molecules pair w/ more than one codon?
wobble
Sxs of dysphagia w/ spoon nails are characteristic of what type of anemia?
iron deficiency anemia
What is the pneumonic for the DNA viruses?
"HHAPPPPy"
herpes,hepadna, adeno, parvo, papilloma, polyoma, and pox