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16 Cards in this Set

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genes
A segment of DNA in which the sequence of nucleotides code for a specific protein (or part of a protein, which in turn produces a specific characteristic.
interphase
The phase of a cell's life cycle before cell division; genes are copied during this period.
Cell Division
The division of one cell into two cells; it includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
Mitosis
The duplicating and separating of a cell's chromosomes; usually followed by cytokinesis.
Cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm
during the process of cell division.
sister chromatid
One of two identical chromosomes formed from one original chromosome during mitosis.
Prophase
The first phase of mitosis; chromosomes coil, and sister chromatids become obvious.
Metaphase
The second phase of mitosis; the chromosomes align by their centromeres across the middle of the spindle.
Anaphase
The third phase of mitosis; during this phase the daughter chromosomes move to opposite ends of the spindle.
Telophase
The last phase of mitosis; sister chromatids reach the ends of the spindle and the nucleus re-forms.
asexual reproduction
The production of a new organism without the joining gametes; reproduction that takes place by mitotic cell divisions.
budding
Asexual reproduction in which a portion of the parent separates from the parent to form a new organism.
regeneration
The ability to replace missing structures; in some organisms, serves as a method of asexual reproduction.
spore
A cell with a hard, protective covering, under favorable conditions it can produce a new organism.
sexual reproduction
The joining of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote, which develops into a new individual.
meiosis
The process whereby one diploid cell forms haploid cells (gametes).