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224 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which nerves affected first with anesthetic
small
myelinated
LA
decrease membrane's perm to Na
LA bind to
inactivation gates of fast voltage gated Na channel
spinothalamic
anterior
lateral
spinothalamic
somatosensory system
temp
pain
light touch
lateral spinothalamic tracts
pain
temp
anterior spinothalamic tract
light touch
dorsal column
medial lemiscal system
posterior columns
what crosses to opposite side in medulla
DC-ML
touch
pressure
vibration
dorsal column medial lemiscal
sensory info carried
fasciculus gracilus, cuneatus
medial lemniscus
from nucleus gracilus and cuneatus
2 excitatory inputs arrive at postsynaptic neuron simultaneously
spatial summation
arrive @ postsynaptic in rapid succession
temporal summation
increase in frequency of nerve impulses in single presynaptic fiber
temporal summation
faster way to travel down axon
saltatory conduction
value of saltatory conduction
1-increase velocity of transmission

2-conserves energy for axon bc only the node depolarizes
inhibitory neurotransmitters
GABA
glycine
1-increase in memb perm to Cl
2-or K
IPSP=
inhibitory postsynaptic potential
binds to receptors in the spinal cord opening Cl
glycine
one way direction for nerve impulses bc
synapses are polarized
electrical synapsis in
1-cardiac
2-smooth
basal ganglia
1-caudate nucleus
2-putamen
3-globus pallidus
output of cerebellum
excitatory
output of basal ganglia
inhibitory
equilibrium
muscle coordination
cerebellum
cebral motor cortex sends info to
1-basal ganglia
2-cerebellum
ANS cholingergic receptors
nicotinic
muscarinic
pyramidal system
corticospinal tract
1-pyramidal
2-extrapyramidal
umn
motor cortex located
frontal lobe
fine skilled movements of skeletal muscle
pyramidal
gross motor movements for
posture
balance
extrapyramidal
primary motor cortex >
internal capsule >
medulla >
cross over
spinal cord
pyramidal system
premotor area of frontal >
pons >
cross >
spinal cord >
anterior horn >
LMN
extrapyramidal system
sympathetic ganglia
paravertebral chain
sympathetic postganglionic neurons
noradrenergic
rubrospinal
reticulospinal
vestibulospinal
tectospinal
extrapyramidal
pregang neurons of sympathetic in spinal cord
thoracolumbar region
pregang parasympath originate
craniosacral region
cholinergic
parasympathetic postgang
noradrenergic
sympathetic postgang
effector organs
parasympathetic ganglia are located
relative refractory period
hyperpolarization
ANS adrenergic receptors
alpha
beta
smooth muscle
alpha 1 receptors
presynaptic nerve terminal
platelets
fat cells
GI walls
alpha 2

inhibition
relazation/dilation
heart
beta 1
excitation
smooth muscl
beta 2
relaxation/dilation
stimulates alpha receptors
norepineph
stimulates alpha/beta
EPI
-40 millivolts
-85 millivolts
resting membrane potential
1-somatic nervous system
2-ANS
PNS
ANS are i
involuntary
somatic
not involuntary
12 cranial nerves
31 spinal (pairs)
effector organs
cardiac
smooth mm
visceral organs
glands
pregang sympathetic neurons release
Ach
Ach binds to ? on postgang
nicotinic cholinergic R
neurotransmitter released by most postgang sympath neuron
NE

binds to alpha/beta adrenergic R
Postsynaptic membrane R of neuromuscular jxn is
nicotinic R
what does Ach open in motor end plate
Na channels
if AchE is nhibited?
prolongatyion of end plate potential EPP
what makes membrane less negative
depolarization
supplied by
cranial nerves
spinal nerves
dermatome
neuroglial cells
support
nourishment for neurons
neural crest >
DRG
autonomic ganglion
chromaggin (adrenal medulla)
neurolemmna
intefumentary pigment
meningeal covering brain/SC
area of skin supplied by single spinal nerve
dermatome
schwann cells >
peripheral nerve fibers
spinal cord
white matter
pain
temp
lateral spinothalamic
oligodentrocytes
CNS
touch
pressure
anterior
spinothalamic tract
subconscious proprioception
sensory impulses one side of body to same side
conscious proprioception
fine touch localization
fasciculus
-gracilis
-cuneatus
impulses
skin
muscle
tendons
joints
anterior roots >
via intervertebral foramina
anterior rami
posterior roots >
via
intervertebral foramina
posterior rami
dorsal posterior rami >
skin of back
deep muscles of back
cervical
brachial
lumbar
sacral
anterior rami unite to form plexuses
body organs innervated
sympath
parasympath
DAP
dura mata
arachnoid
pia mater
separate to form venous sinuses in cranial cavity
dura mater
contains CSF
arachnoid
choroid plexuses
in ventricles of brain
1-pia mater
2-ependymal cells
regulate intraventricular pressure
choroid plexuses
secretion / absorption of CSF
in pia mater
most of cranial nerves from
brainstem
crossing of motor tracts
medulla oblongata
auditory/visual reflex centers
midbrain
respiratory center
pons
vasomotor center
cardiac center
medulla oblongata
control cough reflex
gag reflex
swallow
vomit
medulla
relay station
pons
brainstem =
midbrain
pons
medulla
separates
hemispheres of cerebellum
falx cerebelli
2 horizontal folds
1-tentorioum cerebelli
2-diaphragm sellae
contains
inferior sagital sinuses
superior sagital sinuses
falx cerebri
separates
cerebral hemispheres
falx cerebri
separates
occipital lobes from
cerebellum
tentorium cerebelli
2 vertical folds
1-falx cerebri
2-falx cerebelli
roof of sella turcica
diaphragm sellae
contains occipital sinus
falx cerebelli
opening allows infundibular stalk of pituitary gland
diaphragm sellae
contains
1-straight
2-transverse
3-superior petrosal sinuses
tentorium cerebelli
contains
inferior sagittal sinus
superior sagittal sinus
falx cerebri
dura mater
double layer
dura mater
-endosteal layer =
adheres
inner cranium
dura mater
-meningeal layer =
forms partitions btw regions of brain
gray matter
unmyelinated
nerve cell bodies
filled w
CSF
ventricles
telencephalon
cerebrum
80% brains mass
cerebrum
thalamus
diencephalon
hypothalamus
diencephalon
cerebral medulla =
thicker core of
white matter
thalamus
hypothalamus
epithalamus
pit =
diencephalon
forebrain =
telencephalon
diencephalon
epithalamus
diencephalon
brain =
forebrain
midbrain
hindbrain
pituitary glan
diencephalon
support neurons of PNS=
satellite
schwann
rhombencephalon
hindbrain
neuroglia cells from
ectoderm
microglia
mesoderm
cns that support neurons
1-astrocytes
2-oligodend
3-microglia
4-ependymal
form myelin within PNS
schwann cells
all parasympath
pre
post
release
Ach
sympath
pregang
ach
sympath
postgang
NE
sympath
pregang originate
T1-L3
thoracolumbar region
parasympath
pregang originate
cranial
craniosacral S2-S4
sympath/parasympath
postgang synapse
effector organs
CSF
ventricles
neural tube >
brain
4 ventricles
2 lateral
3rd ventricle
4th ventricle
obstruction of
cerebral aqueduct enlarges
2 lateral
3rd ventricle

NOT 4TH
"c" shape
within R/L cerebral hemispheres
2 lateral ventricle
ventricle within forebrain=
diencephalon
3rd
communication btw
lateral ventricles
3rd ventricles
2
interventricular foramina of Monro
connects
3rd
4th ventricles
cerebral aqueduct
where is cerebral aqueduct
midbrain
4th ventricle location
hindbrain=
metencephalon
spinal tap >
subarachnoid space
median aperture
foramen magendie
lateral aperture of 4th =
foramina of luschka
dura
arachnoid continue down to
S2
S2
arachnoid fuses with
filum terminale
needle btw
L2
L3 >
subarachnoid space
CSF formed by
choroid plexuses
CSF formed in
lateral
3rd
4th ventricles
CSF enters subarachnoid space via
3 foramina of the 4th ventricle
-line ventricles
-line central canal of spinal cord
-line choroid plexus
ependymal cells > CSF
"h" shaped
gray matter
microglia
mesoderm
cns that support neurons
1-astrocytes
2-oligodend
3-microglia
4-ependymal
form myelin within PNS
schwann cells
all parasympath
pre
post
release
Ach
sympath
pregang
ach
sympath
postgang
NE
sympath
pregang originate
T1-L3
thoracolumbar region
parasympath
pregang originate
cranial
craniosacral S2-S4
sympath/parasympath
postgang synapse
effector organs
CSF
ventricles
neural tube >
brain
4 ventricles
2 lateral
3rd ventricle
4th ventricle
obstruction of
cerebral aqueduct enlarges
2 lateral
3rd ventricle

NOT 4TH
"c" shape
within R/L cerebral hemispheres
2 lateral ventricle
ventricle within forebrain=
diencephalon
3rd
temporal lobe
memory
parietal
speech patterns

somatoesthetic interpretation
frontal lobe
precentral gyrus
precentral gyrus >
primary motor area
parietal
postcentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus
primary sensory areA
temporal
smell
parietal
taste
parietal
integration
interpretation
impulses from
cutaneious R
proprioceptive R
somatic sensory fiber
impulses to skeletal muscle
somatic motor
impulses from viscera
visceral sensory
impulses to
smooth mm
cardiac mm
glands
visceral motor
lines
ventricles
central canal of spinal cord
choroid plexuses
ependymal cells > CSF
choroid plexuses >
CSF
CSF enters subarachnoid space via
3 foramina of
4th ventricle
glossopharyngeal
pregang parasymp
otic ganglion
glossopharyngeal (9)
from
medulla oblongata
jugalar foramen
glossopharyngeal (9)
sensation of
pharynx
post 1/3 tongue
glossopharyngeal descends in neck with
1-internal jugular vein
2-internal carotid artery
ciliary ganglion >
oculomotor
pregang parasym
TMJ sensory
auriculotemporal nerve
V-3 >
auriculotemporal nerve
joints only receive >
sensory innervation
motor innervation to joint >
muscle that moves joint
middle cervical ganglia

location
cricoid cartilage
gray rami connect
sympathetic trunk to
(every) spinal nerve
white rami limited to
T1-L2
dorsal root ganglia contain
cell bodies of
visceral afferent fibers
T1-L2
white rami in spinal cord
stellate ganglion
inferior cervical ganglion
level of cricoid cartilage
middle cervical ganglion
btw
internal carotid artery
internal jugular vein
superior cervical ganglion
mainly head region
superior cervical ganglion
parasympathetic ganglion in

infratemporal fossa >
otic ganglion
below foramen ovale
otic ganglion
glossopharyngeal nerve
otic ganglion
lesser petrosal nerve
otic ganglion
parotid gland >
otic ganglion
on hyoglossus muscle
submandibular ganglion
parasympathetic fibers :
facial nerve
chorda tympani
lingual nerve
submandibular ganglion
parasympathetic fiber :

facial nerve
nerve of pterygoid canal
pterygopalatine gangion
lacrimal gland
palate
nose
pterygopalatine ganglion
lateral to optic nerve
ciliary gangion
ciliary muscle
sphincter pupillae
ciilary ganglion
lateral rectus of eye
abducen (6)
smallest cranial nerve
trochlear nerve
only nerve emerges from
dorsal of brainstem
trochlear nerve
thoracic region >
splanchnic nerves
superior oblique muscle
trochlear nerve (4)
unilateral lesion of hypoglossal nerve>
deviate towards affected side

due to
no fxn of
GENIOGLOSSUS MUSCLE on dx side
sensation of anterior 2/3
lingual nerve
bc branch of
MANDIBULAR V3
what joins lingual nerve in
infratemporal fossa
chorda tympani
branch of facial nerve >
chorda tympani
V3>
lingual nerve