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77 Cards in this Set

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phosphofructokinase
rate limiting step in GLYCOLYSIS
fructose 6 phosphate>>>>
fructose 1,6,-biphosphate
phosphofructokinase stimulated by
adp
amp
ATP and citrate inhibit
phosphofructokinase
what converts
fructose 1,6 -biphosphate >>>
two 3-Carbon metabolite
aldolase
aldolase found
skeletal
heart mm
glucose 6-phosphate>>> fructose 6-phosphate
phosphoglucose isomerase
triose phosphate isomerase
INTERCONVERTS
dihydroxyacetone phosphate
glyceraldehyde 3-P
lots in liver
GPT
glutamate - pyruvate transminase
GPT
GOT
liver
CPK
LDH
GOT
GPT
HEART
HEART ATTACK -
FIRST ENZYME
1-CREATINE KINASE
2-GOT
3-GPT
4-LDH
first step in AA catabolism
alpha amino group removal
glutamate dehydrogenase
oxidative deaminatin of glutamate
transaminases not involved in oxidative deamination rxns
1-ast
2-alt
electron acceptors for glutamate dehydrogenase
NAD
NADP
glutamate>>> alpha ketoglutarate
glutamate dehydrogenase
oxidative deamination occurs
liver
kidney
whatch get from oxidative deamination
alpha ketoacids=energy

ammonia=source of Nitrogen in urea synthesis
histadine when deaminated>>>
ammonium ion NH4
serine deaminated>>>
pyruvate
threonine deaminated>>>
alph ketobutyrate
found in erythrocytes
carbonic anhydrase
carbonic anhydrase catalyses
co2
h20
most of CO2 transported in blood as
bicarbonate ion
HCO3
coenzyme Q =
ubiquinone
what passes electrons to heme-containing cytochromes
FMN
Coenzyme Q=ubiquinone
riboflavin>>
FMN
inner memebrane of mitochondria
ETC components
body synthesize
coenzyme Q
ultimate electron acceptor
o2
what is reduced to water
oxygen
haloenzyme=
1-coenzyme
2-apoenzyme
lower the activation energy for the rxn they catalyze
enzymes
enhance rxn rate
enzymes
cofactors require
metal ions
vit derivative
dissolve fibrin
plasmin
fibrinogen found...
plasma
fibrinogen >> fibrin
thrombin
prothrombin formed
liver
zymogens activated by removal of
peptide fragmend in lumen of GI
starch >>
maltose
dextrin
beta amylase
alpha amylase
starch >>> oligosaccharides

pytalin
pancreatic amylase
what is absorbed in SI
monosacch
sucrose=
1-fructose
2-glucose
lactose
1-galactose
2-glucose
glucose 6-P
liver
process where glucose made form non CHO molecules
gluconeo-genesis

mainly AA
not FA
lactic acid/AA >>
pyruvate/phosphoenolpyruvate
gluconeogenesis
catalyze last step in gluconeogenesis
glucose 6- phosphate
pyruvate carboxylase
*gluconeogenesis*
pyruvate > oxaloacetate
PEPCK

*gluconeogenesis*
oxaloacetate > PEP
fructose 1, 6,-biphosphatase
*gluconeogenesis*
fructose 1,6-biP > F-6-P
glucose 6-phosphatase
*gluconeogenesis*
glucose 6-p > glucose
no high energy bond
glucose 6 phosphataase
gluconeogenesis >
glcolysis >
pyruvate to glucose
glucose to pyruvate
Km
units of molarity
Km depends on
1-temp
2-ionic strength
lower Km
higher the affinity
competitive inhibitor
increase Km
low Km
high Km
higher affinity

presence of competitive inhibitor
Vmax
when all enzyme site are saturated
dont follow michaelis-menton kinetics
allosteric enzymes
covalent modification
phosphorylation/
dephosphorylation
glycogen synthase
glycogen synthesis
glycogen synthesis substrate
UDP-glucose
hexokinase

*glycogen synthesis*
glucose > glucose 6-P
glucokinase

*glycogen synthesis*
glucose > glucose 6-P
*liver*
what makes 1,4 linkages in glycogen
glycogen synthase
irreversible inhibitors
*aspirin*
destroy fxn group
competitive inhibitors...
Km increases
Vmax=no affect
Vmax= decreased
Km= unchanged
noncompetitive inhibition
enterokinase
trypsinogen > trypsin
chief cells from stomach
pepsingen
high levels in carcinoma of prostate gland
acid phosphatase
high levels in
Pagets
osteosarcoma
alkaline phosphatase
low alkaline phosphatase levels
hypophosphatasia