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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Tryglycerides: 2 sources
1. Chylomicrons carry diet-derived.
2. VLDL carrys liver-synthesized TGs.
Man with premature coronary artery disease, tendon xanthomasand yellow, raised lesions on eyelids.
Familial hypercholesterolemia.
Autosomal Dom.
Deficiency of LDL receptors.
Steps in atherosclerosis
(affects muscular & elastic arteries)
1.Endothelial injury.
2.Platelets/macrophages adhere.
3. Cytokines cause medial SM hyperplasia.
4. SM cells migrate to tunica intima.
5. Cholesterol enters SM cells(foam cells)
6. Fibrous cap develops.
Most common site for atherosclerosis
abdominal aorta
6 complications of atherosclerosis
1. AAA
2. MI
3. Stroke
4. Small bowel infarct (SMA)
5. HTN via renin-ang-aldo activation d/t to renal artery atherosclerosis.
6. Peripheral vascular dis.
6.
What is arteriolosclerosis & what 2 condiitons is it associated with?
hardening of arterioles.
1. DM (nonenzymatic glycosylation of proteins in BM; protein leaks into vessel wall.
2.HTN (increased intraluminal pressure pushes proteins into vessel wall)
Where do abdominal aortic aneuryms most often arise?
Below renal arteries (no vasa vasorum)
Triad of rupture of AAA.
1. Sudden onset L flank pain.
2. Hypotension
3. Pulsatile mass
Aortic valve regurgitation
Brassy cough.
Wide pulse pressure.
Syphilitic aeurysm=vasculitis of arterioles. Aortic regurg d/t ischemia causing dilation of aortic valve ring.
2 diseases associatedwith aortic dissection.
1.Marfan (AD, def fibrillin. mital valve prolpase.
2.Ehler-Danlos syndrome (defect in type 1 and 3 collagen)
Clinical findings in aortic dissection.
1. tearing pain.
2. decreased pulse on one side.
3. X-ray shows widening of aortic bulb.
Puffiness of face, arms, shoulders.
Retinal hemorrhage
Stroke
Superior vena cava syndrome
Extrinsic compression d/t primary lung cancer
Liver angiosarcoma associwth the exposure to polyvinylchloride, arsenic
Angiosarcoma
Benign capillary proliferation of skin/visceral organs in AIDS pts.
Bacillary angiomatosis (looks like Kaposi's)
Facial lesion in newborns that regresses with age.
Capillary hamangioma
Dilated vessels on skin/muscous membranes. Little red dots on hand, mouth, etc.
Hereditary telangiectasia.
AD
Malignancy of raised, red lesions. Associ c Herpes type 8.
Kaposi sarcoma.
AV fistula assoc c hyperesterinism(cirrhosis/pregnancy)
Spider telangietasia
Birthmark on face in distribution of opthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve.Also has AV malfomation on same side in brain.
Sturge-Webersyndrome
AD.
Cavernous hemangioma in cerebellum and retina.
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
Palpable purpura (acute inflmmation)
Henoch-Schoelein purpura.
(small vessel vasculitis)
What are each of the vasculitis associated with?
small, med, large
Small vessel (Type 3 hypersensitivity)
Medium vessel (infarction)
Large/elastic (pulseless disease)
Young asian woman with absent upper extremity pulse and visual defects.
Takayasu's arteritis
55 year old c temporal headache, jaw pain, blindness on ipsilateral side. Polymyalgia rheumatica.
Temporal arteritis
Middle-aged man with Hep B, positive p-ANCA, nodular inflammed mass, renal failure
Polyarteris nodosa
Child <4 with vasulitis of coronary arteries, desequamating rash, swlling of hands/fet
Kawasaki disease
Smoking man from 25-50 yrs with foot claudiation , ulceration and Reynaud's.
Buerger's disease
Necrotizing vasculitis in respiratory tract, crescentic glomerulonephritis, lung involvement, sinuses.
Wegener's. Most common cause for saddle nose deformity in US.
c-ANCA
Allergic rhinitis, asthma, p-ANCA,eosinophilia
Churg-Stauss syndrome
Palpable purpura of buttocks and lower extremeities. Polyaryritis,glomerulonephiris, GI bleeds
Henoch-Schoelein purpura.
Children and young adults.
Petechiae on palms that spread to trunk.
rickettsia -rocky mountain spotted fever
Diabetic ketoacidosis is assoc c
mucor mycosis.
In essential HT, what happens to renin levels?
Low.
SAlt retained,plasma volume increases,renin is suppressed.