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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
contraction of smooth muscle
stimulate gastric acid secretion
relax smooth muscle
lessen gastric acid secretion
difficult or labored breathing
difficulty in breathing that occurs when lying down
force of muscular contractions
hydrocortisone (coritsol)
a glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex upon stimulation by ACTH that mediates various metabolic processes (as gluconeogenesis), has anti-inflammatory and immunosupressive properties, and whose levels in the blood may become elevated in response to physical or psychological stress
addison's dz
primary deficiency of adrenocortical secretion (cortisol) characterized by extreme weakness, loss of weight, low blood pressure, gastrointestinal disturbances, and brownish pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes
grave's dz
a common form of hyperthyroidism characterized by goiter and often a slight protrusion of the eyeballs
Hering-Breuer reflex
prevents overinflation of the lungs, mediated by vagus nerve
J receptors
located in alveolar walls, when stimulated, cause rapid shallow breathing
most impt stimulus for the respiratory control center
mantle dentin
dentin right next to DEJ (most peripheral layer of dentin) , first layer of dentin formed
tome's fiber
odontoblastic cytoplasmic cell process
chondroitin sulfate
most abundant glycosaminoglycan
Bain·bridge reflex
initiated by an excess amt of blood returning to right atrium, increases heart rate. sensitive to pressure and stretch
positive afterpotential
after the AP is over, the memb becomes even more negative than original resting memb potential, due to potassium channels remaining open after repolarization
RNA non-enveloped
enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, reoviruses, hepatitis A
poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses
rotavirus, causes viral gastroenteritis in young children
hepatitis A
causes infectious hepatitis
RNA enveloped viruses
respiratory viruses, measles, mumps, rubella, and hepatitis C viruses
RNA enveloped
respiratory viruses, measles, mumps, rubella, and hepatitis C viruses, rabies virus and HIV
DNA enveloped viruses
herpes viruses, poxviruses, hepatitis B virus
DNA non-enveloped viruses
adenoviruses, papillomaviruses, parvoviruses
vertebral arteries
branches of the subclavians
basilar artery
two vertebral arteris converge to become this and supplies the posterior brain
brain supply of blood
two vertebral and two carotid
internal carotids
this becomes anterior and middle cerebral arteries
circle of willis
formed by posterior cerebral (br of basilar artery), posterior communicating (br of internal carotid), internal carotid, anterior cerebral, and anterior communicating (br of internal carotid) arteries.
ophthalmic artery
arises from the internal carotid artery and follows the optic nerve thru the optic foramen to enter the orbit
suprahyoid muscles
digastric (anterior belly and posterior), mylohyoid, geniohyoid, stylohyoid
omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid
posterior belly of digastric
innervated by VII
innervated by VII
fibers of C1 carried by the hypoglossal nerve
round ligament of the uterus
found normally in the inguinal canal of the female, it is a fibromuscular band attached to the uterus on either side infront and below the opening of the fallopian tube.
the action or process of giving birth to offspring
superior vena cava
a large vein formed by union of the two brachiocephalic veins, no valve
inferior vena cava
has a non-functioning valve
brachiocephalic vein
formed by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian vein
cephalic vein
drains venous blood from the radial side to the antebrachium and brachium into the subclavian vein
brachial vein
drains venous blood from deep antebrachial regions and brachial regions into axillary vein
subclavian vein
a continuation of the axillary vein at the inferior margin of the first rib, passing medially to join the internal jugular vein and forming the brachiocephalic vein on each side. it crosses the first rib anterior to the anterior scalene muscle
subclavian vein
receives from the external jugular vein and the transverse cervical chain
two terminal branches of internal thoracic artery
superior epigastric and musculophrenic arteries
internal thoracic artery
arise from the first part of the subclavian artery
posterior intercostal arteries
arise from the thoracic aorta
inferior epigastric artery
branch of the external iliac artery
alveolar process
part of the maxilla and mandible that forms and supports the sockets of the teeth
alveolar ventilation
respiratory rate X (tidal volume - Dead space)
dead space
no gas exchange takes place, ex: nose, pharynx, trachea, bronchi
respiratory rate
minute ventilation
tidal volume x breaths/min
exhibiting properties with different values when measured in different directions
exhibiting properties (as velocity of light transmission) with the same values when measured along axes in all directions
A bands
dark bands, anisotropic, myosin (thick)
I bands
lighter bands, isotropic,
actin (thin)
produced by the duodenal mucosa when food arrives in dodenum, stimulates gall bladder contraction and relaxation of Oddi's sphincter
pterygopalatine ganglion
receives preganglionic para fibers from facial nerve by way of the greater petrosal nerve. sends postgang para to lacrimal gland, palate, nose
lack of vitamin k
tendency to bruise and bleed
lack of vit B 12 (cobalamin /
pernicious anemia
makes antibodies against their own desmosome protein
filiform papillae
absence of taste buds and increased keratinization, most numerous
anterior two-thirds of the tongue
receive sensory form lingual nerve (V3) and taste sensation from chorda tympani (VII)
posterior one-third of tongue
receive both general and taste sensation from glossopharyngeal nerve
extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue
innervated by the hypoglossal nerve XII, except for the palatoglossus muscle, which is innervated by the vagus nerve X
palatoglossus muscle
innervated by the vagus nerve X, one of the extrinsic muscles
extrinsic muscles of tongue
genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus
intrinsic muscles of tongue
superior longitudinal, inf longitudinal, transverse, vertical
pectinate muscles
prominent ridges of atrial myocardium
left vagus gives rise to
left recurrent laryngeal n.
duodenum's blood supply
superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, a branch of the gastroduodenal artery, and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, a branch of the superior mesenteric artery
vit C
ascorbic acid, antioxidant, a cofactor required for the hydorxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)
prominent in tissues actively carrying out the biosynthesis of fatty acids and steroids, ATP not directly involved in PPP
pentose phosphate pathway
major role of this pathway to produce NADPH for reductive biosynthetic reactions (fatty acid synt) and to produce essential pentoses (D-ribose)used in biosynthesis of nucleic acids
inability of one eye to attain binocular vision with the other because of imbalance of the muscles of the eyeball, lesion of abducens nerve
strabismus in which the eye turns inward toward the nose
substantia gelatinosa
acts to integrate sensory stimuli that gives rise tot he sensations of heat and pain, posterior horn of gray matter of the spinal cord, gate controller in the pain gate theory
substantia nigra
in midbrain a band of gray matter (composed of motor nuclei) that produces dopamine
substantia nigra
destruction of this leads to parkinson's dz
behcet's syndrome
a chronic, relapsing inflammatory dz that can produce recurring painful mouth sores, skin blisters, genital sores, and swollen joints, formation of pus-like fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye, pyodermas (pus-producing dz of skin)
ankylosing spondylitis
a CT dz charac by an inflamm of the spine and large joints, resulting in stiffness and pain
reiter's syndrome
an inflam of the joints and tendon attachments at the joints, often accompanied by inflam of the eye's conjunctiva and the mucous memb (mouth, urinary tract,etc) and by a distinctive rash
polyarteritis nodosa
a dz in which segments of medium-sized arteries become inflamed and damaged, reducing the blood supply to the organs they supply
polymyalgia rheumatica
a condition causing severe pain and stiffness in the muscles of the neck, shoulders, and hips
the middle layer of the eye consisting of the iris and ciliary body together with the choroid coat
inflam of the uveal tract of the eye, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid
GIP (gastric inhibitory peptide)
has the ability to enhance the release of insulin in response to infusions of glucose
it is released in response to acid (HCL) in the small intestine and stimulates the pancreas to release a flood of bicarbonate base, which neutralizes the acid
gastric inhibitory peptide
secreted from duodenum, inhibits gastric acid secretion (HCL) and motility and potentiates release of insulin from beta cells in response to elevated blood glucose concentration
multiple myeloma
plasma cell cancer in the bone marrow, large amt of Abs accumulate in blood or urine, assoc w/ presence of Bence Jones protein in the urine
a plasma protein that is produced in the liver and is converted into fibrin during blood clot formation
a condition of physiological calcium imbalance that is marked by intermittent tonic spasm of the voluntary muscles and is associated with deficiencies of parathyroid secretion or other disturbances (as vitamin D deficiency)
DiGeorge's syndrome
a rare congenital disease that is characterized especially by absent thymus (so T-cell deficiency)and parathyroid glands, heart defects, immunodeficiency, hypocalcemia, and characteristic facial features (as wide-set eyes, small jaws, and low-set ears,
uncompensated acidosis
10:1 ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid
normal blood bicarbonate-carbonic acid ratio
pH of blood above normal, results in overexcitability of the CNS may lead to tetany, treated by ingesting ammonium chloride
pH of blood below normal, CNS depressed, disorientation, comatose, treated by ingesting sodium bicarbonate
repeating subunits of chromatin, consisting of a DNA chain coiled around a core of histones
histones are small proteins that are positively charged at physiological pH due to their high content of which two amino acids?
arginine and lysine
calcium binds to troponin C on the thin filaments, causing a conformational change in troponin that permits the interaction between actin and myosin
after calcium binds with troponin, tropomyosin molecules move from its blocking position permitting actin and myosin to interact
a hormone that is held to be produced by the duodenal mucosa and to inhibit gastric motility and secretion
external carotid artery terminal branches
1. superficial temporal art
2. maxillary artery
internal carotid artery terminal branches
anterior and middle cerebral arteries
common carotid bifurcate at
thyroid cartilage
carotid body
carotid sinus
tendons that take the form of broad, thin sheets
sharpey's fibers
the attaching fibers of a tendon or ligament to the bone, periosteal collagen fibers penetrate the bone matrix binding the periosteum to the bone
CT charac by nonvascularity, lack of nerves, and having a firm consistency
precursor to endochondrial bone
C3a and C5a
causes increased capillary permability, increased gastric secretion, bronchiolar constriction, fall in blood pressure, resp for principla symptoms of anaphylaxis
the portion of the range of concentration of antibody-antigen mixtures in which one of them although present in excess does not produce its characteristic effect (as agglutination or precipitation)