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139 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 systems which work with the cardiovascular system to maintain homeostasis?
-respiratory
-renal
-GI
-endocrine
What are the 3 body fluid compartments?
-intracellular (67%)
-interstitial (27%)
-circulating plasma (6%)
Where do the right and left heart pump blood to?
right: lungs
left: systemic circulation
What part of the systemic circulation is under the highest pressure?
aorta
In which part of the systemic circulation does blood pressure change most quickly?
arterioles
What part of the systemic circulation has the lowest pressure?
veins
What part of the systemic circulation has the highest cross-sectional area?
capillaries
What part of the systemic circulation has the slowest blood flow?
capillaries
What cardial chambers are separated by the aortic valve?
-left ventricle
-aorta
What cardial chambers are separated by the pulmonic valve?
-right ventricle
-pulmonary artery
What cardial chambers are separated by the tricuspid valve?
-right atrium
-right ventricle
What cardial chambers are separated by the mitral valve?
-left atrium
-left ventricle
What are the functions of the:
-heart
-aorta/large arteries
-arterioles
-capillaries
-venules/veins
heart: pressure pump
aorta/arteries: distribution conduits, pressure dampers
arterioles: resistance vessels
capillaries: exchange interface
venules/veins: adjustable low pressure blood reservoir
What are the 3 types of cardiac muscle cells?
-nodal (pacemaker) cells
-myocardial cells
-Purkinje fibers
Where is the SA node located? What does it do?
The SA node is located on the wall of the right atrium near the superior vena cava. It is a clump of nodal cells that sets the pace for the whole heart.
What is the AV node? What does it do?
A clump of nodal cells that relays and delays the electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles (spatial and temporal bottleneck).
What are the 2 types of cardiac action potentials? Which types of cells have which potentials?
fast response:
-myocardial cells
-Purkinje fibers
slow response:
-nodal cells
What are 3 cellular characteristics that cause a fast conduction velocity?
-large fiber diameter
-large magnitude of depolarization
-fast rate of depolarization
What ionic event causes Phase 0 of the "fast response" action potential? What is Phase 0?
Fast Na+ channels open, causing an inward Na+ current. Phase 0 is the rapid upstroke which happens as a result.
What ionic event causes Phase 1 of the "fast response" action potential? What is Phase 1?
Fast Na+ channels close and transient outward (gto) K+ channels open. Phase 1 is the early repolarization which happens as a result.
What ionic event causes Phase 2 of the "fast response" action potential? What is Phase 2?
L-type Ca2+ channels open and inward rectifier (gK1) K+ channels have a low conductance. Phase 2 is the plateau that happens as a result.
What ionic event causes Phase 3 of the cardiac action potential? What is Phase 3?
L-type Ca2+ channels close, inward rectifier (gK1) and delayed rectifier (gK) K+ channels have increased conductance. Phase 3 is the rapid repolarization that happens as a result.
What ionic event causes Phase 0 of the "slow response" action potential? What is Phase 0?
L-type Ca2+ channels open. Phase 0 is the upstroke which happens as a result.
What ionic event causes Phase 4 of the "slow response" action potential? What is Phase 4?
Gradual activation of "funny" (gf) Na+ channel and decreased conductance of K+. Phase 4 is a gradual depolarization in pacemaker cells.
Which organ systems/structures are innervated by the autonomic nervous system?
-smooth muscle
-cardiac muscle
-glands
Which organ systems/structures are innervated by the somatic nervous system?
-skeletal muscle
-skin
-tendons
-joints
What are the differences between the motor fibers of the somatic and autonomic nervous system?
-somatic system only has 1 neuron involved, autonomic system has 2 (pre- and post-ganglionic)
-somatic system only uses ACh at the target, autonomic uses ACh and NE
What is the neurotransmitter released at the autonomic ganglia of motor fibers?
acetylcholine
Which structures are innervated by the sympathetic system but not the parasympathetic system?
-blood vessels
-sweat glands
Where are the preganglionic cell bodies of the sympathetic system found?
lateral gray horn of spinal segments T1-L2 or L3
What are the sympathetic trunks? Where are they located?
-series of 22-23 paravertebral ganglia connected by nerve fibers
-lie on each side of the vertebral column and extend from the base of the skull to the sacrum
Where are the paravertebral/collateral ganglia of the sympathetic system located?
on the midline, ventral to the vertebral column
What is the white ramus communicans?
a bundle of myelinated sympathetic preganglionic axons exiting the ventral ramus through the ventral root/spinal cord
What is the grey ramus communicans?
a bundle of sympathetic postganglionic axons which joins the ventral or dorsal ramus of a spinal nerve to innervate blood vessels and sweat glands
What is the superior cervical ganglion?
-receives sympathetic fibers from upper thoracic segments
-postganglionic fibers accompany branches of the carotid arterial system to innervate smooth muscle/glands of the head
What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on the eye?
-constricts pupil
-accommodation
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the eye?
dilates pupil
What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on the submaxillary, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands?
saliva becomes watery and high volume
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the submaxillary, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands?
saliva becomes viscous and low volume
What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on the larynx, trachea, and bronchi?
bronchoconstriction
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the larynx, trachea, and bronchi?
bronchodilation
What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on the stomach and small intestine?
- ↑peristalsis
- ↑glandular secretion
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the stomach and small intestine?
- ↓peristalsis
- ↓glandular secretion
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the abdominal blood vessels?
vasoconstriction
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the adrenal medulla?
release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on the bladder?
-contracts detrusor (↑urination)
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the bladder?
-relaxes detrusor (↓urination)
What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on the sex organs and external genitalia?
erection of penis and clitoris
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the sex organs and external genitalia?
ejaculation
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the skin?
-sweat gland secretion (cholinergic)
-vasoconstriction
-piloerection
What neurotransmitter is released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons?
acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter is released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons?
norepinephrine
What are the four cranial nerves which contain parasympathetic preganglionic fibers?
-oculomotor (III)
-facial (VII)
-glossopharyngeal (IX)
-vagus (X)
What structures are innervated by the vagus nerve?
-heart
-bronchial smooth muscle
-smooth muscle and glands of the esophagus
-smooth muscle and glands of the gut proximal to the distal half of the transverse colon
Where are the parasympathetic preganglionic neuronal cell bodies found?
lateral horn of S2-S4
Which structures are innervated by pelvic splanchnic nerves (nervi erigentes)?
-smooth muscle and glands of the gut distal to the distal half of the transverse colon
-bladder and urethra
-reproductive organs
What is the effect of parasympathetic innervation on the heart?
- ↓heart rate
- ↓contractility
What is the effect of sympathetic innervation on the heart?
- ↑heart rate
- ↑contractility
Where are the sympathetic preganglionic neurons which innervate the heart?
lateral grey horns of T1-T4(5)
Where are the sympathetic postganglionic neurons which innervate the heart?
-upper thoracic ganglia
-all 3 cervical ganglia
To where do the afferent sympathetic fibers from the heart go?
ventral rami of T1-T5 via white ramus communicans
How does sympathetic innervation by the stellate nerve affect heart rate? (molecular mechanism)
-norepinephrine interacts with the β1 receptor
-stimulation of adenylate cyclase through Gs protein pathway
-increase in cAMP stimulates gf Na+ channels
-increase in heart rate
How does parasympathetic innervation by the vagus nerve affect heart rate? (molecular mechanism)
-acetylcholine interacts with the muscarinic receptor
-inhibition of adenylate cyclase through Gi protein pathway
-decrease in cAMP causes less activity of gf Na+ channels
-muscarinic receptor stimulates K+ channels
-decrease in heart rate
What is the inherent rate of the atrial foci?
60-80/min
What is the inherent rate of the AV junction foci?
40-60/min
What is the inherent rate of the ventricular foci?
20-40/min
How are re-entry circuits caused?
conditions or drugs that:
-produce unidirectional block
-delay retrograde conduction
-shorten refractory period
The sternal angle occurs at the level of which rib?
2nd
Which ribs are true ribs? Which are false? Which are floating?
-true: 1-7
-false: 8-12 (11, 12 are floating)
What is a rib dislocation?
-occur at a sternocostal joint
-costal cartilage becomes displaced from the sternum
What is a rib separation?
-occur at a costochondral joint
-perichondrium and periosteum are torn
What is the retromammary bursa?
a potential space which lies between the superficial fascia and the pectoral fascia
Which arteries supply the breast?
branches of:
-internal thoracic artery
-lateral thoracic artery
-posterior intercostal arteries
Lymph from the lateral area of the breast drains to which nodes?
axillary nodes (pectoral, central, and apical)
Lymph from the medial area of the breast drains to which nodes?
internal thoracic (parasternal) nodes
Where does the pectoralis major muscle originate? Where does it insert?
originates:
-medial clavicle
-sternum
-upper 6 costal cartilages
inserts:
-crest of greater tubercle of the humerus
Where does the pectoralis minor muscle originate? Where does it insert?
originate:
-ribs 3-5
insert:
-coracoid process
Where does the serratus anterior muscle originate? Where does it insert?
originate:
-upper 9 ribs
insert:
-medial border of costal surface of scapula
Where does the subclavius muscle originate? Where does it insert?
originate:
-1st rib
insert:
-inferior surface of midshaft of clavicle
Which nerves innervate the pectoralis major?
-medial pectoral nerve
-lateral pectoral nerve
Which nerves innervate the pectoralis minor?
medial pectoral nerves
Which nerve innervates the serratus anterior?
long thoracic nerve
What are the functions of the pectoralis major?
-may function as accessory muscle in breathing
shoulder movements:
-adduction
-medial rotation
-flexion
-extension
What are the functions of the pectoralis minor?
scapula movement:
-protraction
-downward rotation
-depression
What are the functions of the serratus anterior muscle?
scapula movement:
-upward rotation
-protraction
-depression
What are the functions of the subclavius muscle?
-anchors clavicle
-protects vessels and nerves below it
Which arteries supply the pectoral region?
branches of the axillary artery:
-superior thoracic
-thoracoacromial
-lateral thoracic
In which direction do the external intercostal muscles run?
inferoanteriorly from the upper to lower rib
In which direction do the internal intercostal muscles run?
inferoposteriorly from the upper to lower rib
Which muscles lie deepest in the thoracic wall?
-innermost intercostals
-transverus thoracis
-subcostals
Where are intercostal veins, arteries, and nerves located?
between the internal and innermost intercostal muscle layers just below the ribs
What structures are innervated by the intercostal nerves?
-intercostal muscles and skin of the thorax (T1 - T11)
-abdominal muscles and skin (T7 - T11 only)
From which arteries do the posterior intercostal arteries branch?
-supreme intercostal artery (first 2)
-thoracic aorta (remaining 9)
From which arteries do the anterior intercostal arteries branch?
-internal thoracic artery (first 6)
-musculophrenic artery (remaining 5)
Where do the posterior intercostal veins drain to?
right side:
-azygos vein
left side:
-hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins
Where do the anterior intercostal veins drain to?
-musculophrenic vein
-internal thoracic vein → brachiocephalic veins
What are the layers of the pericardium?
-fibrous pericardium: outside, fused to diaphragm, attached to sternum by connective tissue
-parietal serous pericardium: lines inside of fibrous pericardium
-visceral serous pericardium: epicardium of the heart
How are the fibrous pericardium and parietal serous pericardium innervated?
-efferent: phrenic nerve
-afferent: somatic pain fibers
How is the epicardium innervated?
autonomics (mainly sympathetics)
Which artery supplies blood to the fibrous pericardium and parietal serous pericardium?
pericardiacophrenic artery
Which arteries supply blood to the epicardium?
right and left coronary arteries
What is the pericardial cavity?
space between the parietal serous pericardium and the epicardium
Which chamber(s) of the heart lie on the apex?
left inferolateral part of the left ventricle
Which chamber(s) of the heart lie on the base?
-left atrium
-part of the right atrium
Which chamber(s) of the heart lie on the diaphragmatic surface?
-left ventricle
-small part of right ventricle
Which chamber(s) of the heart lie on the anterior (sternocostal) surface?
right ventricle
What chamber(s) of the heart lie on the pulmonary surface?
left ventricle
What are the main branches off the right coronary artery?
-SA nodal (in 60% of people)
-right marginal
-posterior interventricular
-AV nodal (in most people)
What are the main branches off the left coronary artery?
-anterior interventricular (left anterior descending or LAD)
circumflex:
-left marginal
-SA nodal (in 40% of people)
Which areas of the heart are innervated by the SA nodal artery?
-pulmonary trunk
-SA node
Which areas of the heart are innervated by the right marginal artery?
-right ventricle
-apex
Which areas of the heart are innervated by the posterior interventricular artery?
-posterior interventricular septum
-part of left and right ventricles
Which areas of the heart are innervated by the AV nodal artery?
AV node
Which areas of the heart are innervated by the anterior interventricular (LAD) artery?
-anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum
-part of right and left ventricles
Which areas of the heart are innervated by the circumflex artery?
-left atrium
-left ventricle
Where do the major cardiac veins drain to?
-most drain into coronary sinus → right atrium
-anterior cardiac veins drain directly into the right atrium
What is the sarcolemma?
of a muscle cell:
-plasma membrane
-basal lamina
-reticular fibers
What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
smooth ER of a muscle cell
What is the sarcosome?
mitochondria of a muscle cell
What is epimyseum?
connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle
What is perimyseum?
extensions of epimyseum (connective tissue) that divides muscle into fascicles
What is endomyseum?
extensions of perimyseum (connective tissue) that intersperse between fascicles
What is the purpose of MyoD and MEF2 proteins?
-expressed during embryonic development
-induce myoblast differentiation
What is myostatin?
-a cytokine synthesized in muscle cells
-suppresses skeletal muscle development
What are the 3 ways to increase strength and muscle mass in adults?
-increase in thickness of individual fibers and amount of connective tissue
-increase in length of fibers from recruitment of myoblasts
-increase in protein content
What type of fibers are primarily contained in the A-band?
myosin
What type of fibers are primarily contained in the I-band?
thin filaments (composed of α-actin)
Which bands in the sarcomere shorten when it contracts?
-H-band
-I-band
Where in the sarcomere are the pointed ends of actin filaments? Where are the barbed ends?
-pointed: M-line
-barbed: Z-line
What is tropomodulin?
actin pointed-end capping protein
What is tropomyosin?
double helical structure which runs in groove between F-actin molecules in thin filaments
What is troponin complex?
masks myosin binding site in resting muscle
What is titin?
elastic protein that connects thick filaments to Z-disks
What is α-actinin?
actin bundling protein; helps anchor thin filaments to Z-disk
What is myomesin?
myosin bundling protein; holds thick filaments in register at M-line
Why is Ca2+ necessary for muscle contraction?
binds troponin-C → troponin-I releases actin → tropomyosin slips into its binding groove
What causes the myosin filament to release from actin?
rapid ATP binding to back of myosin head
What causes the myosin filament to bind to actin?
-ATP hydrolysis
-release of Pi
What are T-tubules?
invaginations of the sarcolemma extending between sarcomeres