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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What happens to light every time it hits a surface?
4% of it is lost because of reflection and refraction.
snell's law
index of refraction n = ?
speed of light in vacuum/ speed of light in medium

what is the critical angle?
critical angle is the angle needed to determine if total internal reflection will occur.

it is: sin(critical angle) = nB/Na

where Nb and Na are indexes of refraction

total internal reflection occurs for angles higher than critical angle.
Numerical aparture
Na= n sin(a)

(light gathering capacity)
sin(a) is half angle of cone of light
n is index of refraction of medium
How to determine if a virtual or real image is formed?
a real image is formed when n1<n2 with a ( shaped lens

a virtual image is formed when n1>n2 in a ) shaped lens

(N2-N1)/r = (n1/p) + (n2/q)

p- distance btw object and interface
q distance between image and interface (if negative it is a virtual image)

r- radius of curvature of lens
What is the thin lens equation and what does it tell you?
(1/f) = 1/p + 1/q

Tells you about the position of the object and the magnification of the image

f is the focal length
p is distance from object to center of lens
q is the distance from the lens to the image.
spot size

d is diameter of raw bean
f is focal length

area = (∏(ss)^2)/4
What are the two ways to characterize light in terms of wavelength?
spacialy: (x position is on the x axis)
k vector = 2pi/wavelength
wave number: k = 1/wavelength

tmporally (time is on the x axis)
angular frequency = 2pi/period

frequency= 1/period
what is frequency in terms of wavelenths and speed of light?
v= c/wavelength
what is c
2.998 x 10^8 m/s
energy of a photon?
E= hv

E= hc/wavelength

h= 6.626 x 10^-34 Js
what is the range of visible light?
350 - 720 nm
violet red
what are the properties of lasers?
columnated - rats are parallel
coherent- all rays are in phase
what is the intensity of a laser? (I)

same as irradience

power can be average or peak
what is raleigh scattering?
re-emitted wavelength = incident wavelength
what is raman scattering?
re-emited wavelength = incident wavelength
peak power of a laser?
Pk = Energy/ period
fluence (focused energy of a laser)
energy per pulse of pulse laser?
P avg/ rep. rate
Lambert-Beer law? what is it and what does it decribe
change of intenstiy of light as it goes through a medium:

I(Z) = Iinitial e^-(Beta)z

z is thickness of medium or distance traveled through medium

Beta = μa + μs
μa= absorbtion coefficient
μs = scattering coefficiient
types of microscopes?
Some types of microscopes
Brightfield/Transillumination (absorption)
Phase contrast (scattering/phase retardation)
Differential Interference Contrast
scattering/refractive index gradient)
Confocal (depth resolution; reflectance/fluorescence)
Multi-photon fluorescence (depth resolution)
Second Harmonic Generation (depth resolution;
what is resolution
the min distance between two objects in which the two objects can be distinguished as sepatare

r= .61λ/Na
percent contrast?
% contrast = [(Ib/Is)/Ib) x 100

Ib intensity of background
Is intensity of sample
trans illumination
illumination and imging on diff sides of specimine
epi illumination
illumination and imaging on same side of specimen
resolution range of light microscope?
.1 microms - 1mm
resolution range of Electron microscope?
1.1 angstrom to 100 microns
M = -q/p