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152 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
study of matter
chemistry
anything that has mass and takes up space
matter
a constant ( the force one exerts)
mass
matter can neither be created nor destroyed
Law of COnservation of Mass
state of matter that has deff shape and volume
solid
state of matter that has indeff. shape and deff volume
liquid
state of matter that has indeff shape and volume
gas
name the 5 physical properties of matter
density, color, state, melting pt., boiling pt.
physical changes in matter are
changes in the state ( solid liquid gas)
chemical reactions that a particular type of matter may undergo are
chemical properties
what are the 3 points of chemical changes?
-they are the results of chemical reactions - some matter gets used up - some matter gets formed
put into scientific notation: 37.5
3.75 x 10^1
put into scientific notation: 629000
6.29 x 10^5
put into scientific notation: 4248000000
4.248 x 10^9
put into scientific notation:0.00091
9.1 x 10 ^-4
put into scientific notation: 0.0000000000208
2.08 x 10^-11
put into scientific notation:7.62 x 10^-4
0.000762
put into scientific notation: 9.1 x 10^8
910000000
what is the metric unit for mass?
gram (g)
what is the metric unit for volume?
liter (L)
what is the metric unit for length?
meter (m)
(G) 10^9
Giga
(M) 10^6
Mega
(k) 10^3
Kilo
(d) 10^-1
Deci
(c) 10^-2
Centi
(m) 10^-3
Milli
(u) 10^-6
Micro
(n) 10^-9
Nano
1 ml = ?
1 cm^3
cm^3=?
cc
cc=?
ml
1 mL h2o=?
1g @ 20 C
1 L h2o=?
1000g or 1kg
2 major areas of atomic structure?
nucleus and orbitals
thsi is the core, the center of the structure
nucleus
what does the nucleus contain?
*protons ( positive charge )
weighs 1.67x10^-24g=1amu

*neutrons ( no charge, neutral ) mass is 1 amu
what does the orbitals contain?
electrons ( negatively charged ) mass = 1/1837 amu
why are all atoms of the periodic table neutral?
b/c the # of p = # of e
what is it called when the atoms may gain or loose electrons?
ionization
what are negatively charged ions called?
anions
what are positively charged ions called?
cations
what is the atomic #?
the # of protons, it identifies the element!
what is the mass #?
the sum of p + n
mass#=whole#
the average of all the mass numbers for different isotopes of a particular atom
atomic weight
these have the same #p, but different #n,
isotopes
isotopes have very _____ nuclei, which demonstrates ________
unstable, radioactivity
the changes that occur in the nucleus
radiation
what is this an example of?
2p + 2n from nucleus
alpha particles
what is this an example of?
n--->p + e-
beta particles
what is this an example of?
electromagnetic radiation(x-rays)
gamma radiation
changes in orbitals (e-) of an atom
chemical activity
How is the periodic table arranged?
in periods (rows)(horizontal)
+
in columns (groups)(verticle)
elements within a group behave________
similarly
how many periods are there?
7
as you go from left to right and top to bottom the mass________
increases
what are the 4 classes of elements?
metals, non-metals, metalloids, and noble/inert gases
what class of elements are: shiny, conductive, malleable, ductile, tends to give electrons
metals
what class of elements are: not conductive, not malleable, have a tendency to accept electrons
non-metals
what class of elements are: similar to some metals and non-metals, intermediate qualities
metalloids
what class of elements are: "motionless", non reactant and very stable
noble/inert gasses
the amount of energy required to remove e-'s from an atom (decreases as it goes down the group)
ionization energy
metals had very ____ ionization energy
low
where are the electrons found?
arranged in shells
this shell is the smallest and contains electrons of the lowest amt of energy
shell #1
what identifies how many shells an element contains?
the period #
each # 1 shell contains how many orbitals?
less than or equal to 1
what designates the shell?
a number
what designates an orbital?
a letter
which shell is the simplest and smallest and has lowest energy?
shell #1
what does the shell #1 contain?
one 1S orbital (S orbitals are spherical in shape)
What does the #2 shell contain?
one 2S orbital and three 2P orbitals (figure eight shape)
What does the #3 shell contain?
one 3S orbital
three 3P orbitals
five 3d orbitals
what is the max # of electrons every orbital can have?
2
paired electrons are______ and _____
stable and nonreactive
what is the electron capacity for #1 shell?
2 e-'s
what is the electron capacity for #2 shell?
8 e-'s
what is the electron capacity for #3 shell?
18 e-'s
electrons of the outer most shells are called what?
valence electrons
if the outer most shell is filled, it is
non-reactive
if the outer most shell is not filled it is
reactive
this uses dots to show electrons of the outer shell
Lewis Structure
what kind of electron configuration do elements of the same group have?
same config.
this states that generally atoms have a tendency to react(bond) in such a way to achieve 8 e-'s in the outer most shell
Octet Rule
what are the 2 general types of elements?
representative and transition
these elements behave reactivly based apon the octet rule, and have incomplete outer shells until you get to the inert gases(which are complete) and they all have complete inner shells
representative elements
these have less than or equal to 1 unfilled inner shells
transition elements
this bond is the transfer of 1 or more electrons
ionic bond
this bond is one that shares electrons
covalent bonds
what are the types of covalent bonds?
single, double and triple
this type of covalent bond shares the electrons equally
non-polar
this type of covalent bond shares the electrons unequally
polar
this is attraction for electrons being shared in a bond
electronegativity
what is electronegativity due to?
the attraction to protons in the nucleus
why does electronegativity increase from left to right?
b/c nuclear charge is increasing from left to right
electronegativity decreases from____ to ____
top to bottom
what is the most electromagnetic element?
Flourine ( F )
how is bond type predicted?
by electronegativity difference
results of electronegative difference is greater than 1.9 it is
an ionic bond
results of electronegative difference is 0.5-1.9 it is
a polar covalent bond
results of electronegative difference is less than 0.5 it is
a non polar covalent bond
what is the bond type?
C-H
C-H
2.5 2.1 --> 2.5-2.1= 0.4 so it is non polar covalent!
what is the bond type?
O-H
O-H
3.5 2.1 --> 3.5-2.1 = 1.4 so it is polar covalent!
what is the bond type?
NaCl
NaCl
3.0 0.9 --> 3.0-0.9 = 2.1 so it is an ionic bond!
"valence shell electron pair repulsion"
vsepr
what does vsepr state?
like charges repel
regions of electron density seperate as far away as possible
What is the predicted bond angle and molecular shape if there are 4 regions of electron density?
109.5 C
Tetrahedral
What is the predicted bond angle and molecular shape if there are 3 regions of electron density?
120 C
trigonal planar
What is the predicted bond angle and molecular shape if there are 2 regions of electron density?
180 C
linear
these molecules must have their center of partial positive charge @ a diff location than their center of partial negative charge, are hydrophilic, and have charges within
polar molecules
These molecules are lipids, mostly C-H, have no charges, and are hydrphobic
non-polar molecules
this ion is positivly charged, and losses electrons
cations
this ion is negativly charged and gains electrons
anion
NH4+
ammonium
OH-
Hydroxide
NO3-
Nitrate
CO3 2-
carbonate
HCO3-
bicarbonate
SO4 2-
sulfate
PO4 3-
phosphate
this compound is made up of 2 elements, and it is joined by ionic bonds
Binary ionic compounds
naming the binary ionic compound
metal anion
-gives off e-'s -name 2nd
-so it is a cation -ide
-named 1st (element name)
name this binary ionic compound: LiCl
lithium chloride
name this binary ionic compound: NaBr
sodium bromide
name this binary ionic compound: CaF
calcium Fluoride
name this binary ionic compound: MgO
magnessium oxide
name this binary ionic compound: FeCo3
iron carbonate
NaNo3
sodium nitrate
made up of 2 elements joined by covalent bonds
binary molecular compound
how do u name the binary molecular compound?
name the less electronagative element 1st, name the more electronegative element 2nd,
use the prefixes di-, tri-, tetra-,penta-, hexa-
what charge does a proton have?
positive
Name this binary molecular compound: N2O3
dinitrogen trioxide
Name this binary molecular compound: CCL4
carbon tetrachloride
this is the sum of all the atomic weights in a molecular formula
formula/molecular weight
formula weight of any substance in grams
mole
number used in calculating moles?
avogadro's number ( 6.02 x 10^23 )
1 mole H2O = ?
18g
1 mole H2 = ?
2g
calculate the molecular weight of C2H5OH
c2 H5 OH
(2)(12)(6)(1)(1)(16)
46g
46g ethanol/1mole ethanol
what is REDOX?
oxidation reduction reaction
loss of electrons
loss of H's
gain of O's
oxidation
gain of electrons
gain of H's
loss of O's
reduction
these 2 always occur at the same time
oxidationa nd reduction
when an element is oxidized (and looses e-'s) it is called the
reducing agent
when an element is reduced at it gains electrons, it is called the
oxidizing agent
what are teh 3 examples of REDOX?
combustion, rusting,respiration, and bleaching
what is heat measured in?
calories
1 cal = ?
the amt of heat neede to increase temp of 1 g h2o to 1 C
this reaction gives off heat
exothermic
this reaction absorbs heat
endothermic
this reaction gives off energy
exergonic
this reaction absorbs energy
endergonic