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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 main somatosensory pathways
dorsal column
anterolateral
fine touch is carried by ___ pathway
DC
anterolateral pathway conducts ___ (3) modalities
pain
temperature
crude touch
in addition to fine touch, DCs carry ___ (2)
vibration
proprioception
1st order DC fibers from level ___ and up synapse in ___
below that, 1st order DC fibers synapse in ___
T6
fasciculus cuneatus
fasciculus gracilis
decussation of DC pathway is via ___ from ___ at level of ___
these become ___
arcuate fibers
nucleus cuneatus + gracilis
caudal medulla
medial lemniscus
at level of rostral medulla, medial lemniscus is oriented ___ly
at level of pons it is oriented ___ly
at level of midbrain it is oriented ___ly
feet ventral, arms dorsal (parallel to dorsoventral axis)
feet lateral, arms medial (45 degrees to dorsoventral axis)
feet lateral, arms medial (45 degrees to dorsoventral axis)
2nd order neurons of DC pathway synapse in ___
VPLN of thalamus
3rd order neurons of DC pathway run from ___ to ___ via ___ in the ___
VPLN of thalamus
1' somatosensory cortex
thalamic somatosensory radiations
posterior limb of internal capsule
3 lateral ascending SC pathways
anterolateral system
dorsal spinocerebellar tract
ventral spinocerebellar tract
3 tracts of anterolateral system
ST
spinoreticular
spinomesencephalic
1st order neurons of anterolateral system synapse in ___
some of these fibers travel vertically in ___ before synapsing
lamina I
lamina V
(not lamina II???)
Lissauer's tract
because of ___, lesion in anterolateral system causes hypoesthesia at/above/below the level of the lesion
fibers of anterior white commisure ascend 2 or 3 levels before entering contralateral anterolateral system
below
2nd order neurons of ST tract synapse in ___
VPLN of thalamus
3rd order neurons of ST tract are located in ___
they synapse in ___ after going through ___ in ___
VPLN of thalamus
1' somatosensory cortex
thalamic somatosensory radiations
posterior limb of internal capsule
in addition to VPLN, ST tract projects to ___ (2) in thalamus
intralaminar nuclei
mediodorsal nucleus
unlike VPLN, intralaminar nuclei project to ___ of cortex
all
intralaminar and ___ ST projections, together with ___, are responsible for ___
dorsomedial nucleus
spinoreticular tract
emotional + qualitative aspect of pain
spinomesencephalic tract projcets to ___ in ___
this provides ___
PAG
midbrain
pain modulation
3 parts of thalamus
anterior nuclear group
medial nuclear group
lateral nuclear group
the 3 groups of the thalamus are separated by the ___
internal medullary lamina
___ of thalamus are functionally related to intralaminar nuclei
___ is a sheet on lateral aspect of thalamus
midline thalamic nuclei
thalamic reticular nucleus
3 kinds of thalamic nuclei
most thalamic nuclei are the ___ kind
relay
intralaminar
reticular
relay
3 relay nuclei which are not located in the lateral group
anterior
mediodorsal
midline
output from BG and cerebellum is relayed at ___ nucleus,
which projects to ___ (3)
ventrolateral
motor cortex
premotor cortex
supplementary motor area
output from mammilary body and hippocampal formation is relayed at ___ nucleus,
which projects to ___
anterior
cingulate gyrus
output from HTh, basal forebrain, amygdala, hippocampus is relayed at ___ nucleus,
which projects to ___ (3)
midline thalamic nuclei
amygdala
hippocampus
limbic cortex
___ is a posterior relay nucleus which projects widely
___ is a medial one
pulvinar
mediodorsal
pulvinar receives input from ___ and projects to ___ (3)
superior colliculus
parietal cortex
temporal cortex
occipital cortex
mediodorsal nucleus receives ___ input from ___ and projects to ___
cognitive
limbic system
frontal association cortex
intralaminar nuclei receive input and send output to ___
they also do ___
BG
ascending reticular activating system
2 kinds of intralaminar nuclei
rostral
caudal
BG input to intralaminar nuclei is from ___
globus pallidus
___ is the only thalamic nucleus which does not project to cortex
thalamic reticular nucleus
thalamic reticular nucleus receives input from ___ (3) and projects to ___
thalamus
RAS
basal forebrain
thalamus
thalamic reticular nucleus is composed almost exclusively of ___
GABAergic neurons
complete hemisensory deficit can be caused by lesion in ___ (2)
whole contralateral 1' somatosensory cortex
VPLN + VPMN of contralateral thalamus
hemisensory deficit in face with contralateral hemisensory deficit in
arm + trunk + leg
can be caused by lesion in ___
modality affected in face is ___
modality affected in arm + trunk + leg is ___
lateral pons ipsilateral to facial deficit
lateral medulla ipsilateral to facial deficit
trigeminothalamic
ST
hemisensory deficit in arm + trunk + leg
can be caused by lesion in ___
modality affected is ___
structure affected is ___
medial medulla
DC
medial lemniscus
5 SC syndromes
transverse cord
hemicord
central cord
posterior cord
anterior cord
hemicord lesions cause ___
Brown-Sequard syndrome
Brown-Sequard syndrome has ___ ipsilateral to lesion at ___ level,
and ___ contralateral at ___ level
DC hemisensory deficit
LMN deficit at level of lesion
level of lesion
ST
2--3 levels below lesion
central cord lesion causes ___ if small and ___ (4) if large
suspended bilateral ST sensory loss
bilateral ST sensory deficit
bilateral DC sensory deficit
bilateral CS deficit
sacral sparing
sensation from rectum, bladder, urethra, and genitalia enters SC at levels ___
sensation is transmitted via ___ tract(s)
S2--S4
anterolateral
DC
voluntary control of pelvic floor muscles is via ___ cells at level ___
anterior horn cells
S2--S4
voluntary control of urethral + anal sphincters is via ___ cells at level ___
sphincteromotor nucleus of Onuf
S2--S4
pelvic PARA output is via ___ at level ___
pelvic SYM output is via ___ at level ___
sacral PARA nuclei
S2--S4
IML columns
T11--L1
for lesions to cause bladder/bowel/sexual symptoms, they must be ___
b/l
in detrusor reflex, relaxation of ___ causes ___,
which causes ___
external urethral sphincter
relaxation of bladder neck
detrusor contractoin
relaxation of bladder neck occurs via ___
activation of detrusor occurs via ___
inhibition of SYM
activation of PARA
in the urethral reflex,
cessation of urine flow causes ___,
which causes ___
urethral sphincter contraction
detrusor relaxation
lesions in frontal micturition-inhibition centers cause ___ with normal ___
loss of voluntary control of urination
bladder function
SC lesions below ___ and above ___ cause ___ at first, then ___
pontine micturition center
S2
atonic bladder
spastic bladder
atonic bladder causes ___ incontinence
spastic bladder causes ___ incontinence
overflow
urge
spastic bladder may include ___
detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia
peripheral bladder neuropathy or ___ lesion may cause ___ bladder
this may cause either ___ or ___ incontinence
S2--S4 cord lesion
atonic
overflow
stress
neurogenic bladder means ___
bladder dysfunction caused by any central or peripheral nerve lesion
internal anal sphincter is made of ___ and is innervated by ___ nerves
smooth muscle
sacral PARA
external anal sphincter is made of ___ and is innervated by ___ nerves from ___
striated muscle
pelvic
Onuf's nucleus
pelvic floor muscles are innervated by ___ nerves
sacral anterior horn
sensory input from rectum enters SC at ___
S2--S4
sensory input from genitalis enters SC at ___
S2--S4
thalamus is perfused by ___ (3)
occlusion of one of these typically causes ___
lenticulostriate branches of MCA
thalamoperforator branches of PCA
anterior choroidal branch of ICA
lacunar infarct