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98 Cards in this Set

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The Blues were developed in the

1
The Blues were develope in the last decades of the 1800s. The earliest known documentation of the Blues occurred in 1898.
W.C. Handy is known as the

2
W.C. Handy is known as the father of the blues
Tin Pan Alley refers to a place in

3
Tin Pan Alley refers to a place in New York City that served as the center of the music publishing industry from 1910-1940. Blues moved into the mainstream in 1912 with Tin Pan Alley street blues.
In 1912 "Dallas Blues," became the

4
In 1912, "Dallas Blues," became the first Blues' song to be published. Hart Wand, a white man, was the author of "Dallas Blues."
"Memphis Blues," was played by

5
"Memphis Blues," was played by W.C. Handy in 1912 and was the third Blues' song to be published
"Sheet-Music Blues" was performed by white

6
"Seet-Music Blues" was performed by white orchestras/military bands, pre-jazz African American orchestras, Black Vaudeville singers like Ma Rainey, and Hawaiian groups with steel guitars.
In 1914, "Memphis Blues" by the Victor Military Band became

7
In 1914, "Memphis Blues" by the Victor Military Band became the first Blues Recording.
In 1916, George O' Connor's "Nigger Blues" became the first 12-Bar

8
In 1916, George O' Connor's "Nigger Blues" became the first 12-Bar recording to actually sound like the blues.
In 1920, Mamie Smith became the first African American to

9
In 1920, Mamie Smith became the first African American to record blues. Smith's "Crazy Blues," was recorded by OKeh records.
Smith's "Crazy Blues," marked the star of the

10
Smith's "Crazy Blues" marked the start of the "Race" recording instury in which black popular music was targeted at black audiences.
Until 1924, Vaudeville Blues/Classic (Female) Blues were the

11
Until 1924, Vaudeville Blues/Classic (Female) Blues was the major recording style of black blues.
Melodic Material in the Blues came from

12
Melodic Material in the Blues came from Field Hollers.
Harmonic Material in the Blues came from adopting

13
Harmonic Material in the Blues came from adopting field hollers melodies to bajos and guitars that were TUNED TO OPEN CHORDS and came from borrowing the strongest 3 chords in western HARMONY--I, V, IV.
Ragtime Guitar, stringband music, the narrative "blues ballad," and novelty songs are all forms of
14
Ragitme Guitar, stringband music, the narritive "blues ballad," and novelty songs are all forms of Rural/Country Blues
"Songsters" are made up of musicians like

15
"Songsters" are made up of musicians like Papa Charlie Jackson and Henry Thomas. Blind Blake is seen as a ragtime guitar picker.
Regional Styles of the Blues include

16
Regional Styles of the Blues include Texas Blues, Delta Blues, East Coast Blues, and Piedmont Blues.
In 1924/1925 the first

17
In 1924/1925 the first country blues were recorded.
The Blues are important because we should all

18
The Blues are imporant because we should all study black music to understand the black experience, recognize that the Blues are the most influential of black musical genres, and because the Blues is most unaccultured and least compromised black musical expression. The 3rd reason shows us what Af-Am experience was really like.
The Blues are distinct in poetry/lyrics in that

COSAIIWWAO,EF/E,U,S,R

19
The Blues are distinct in poetry/lyrics in that they are written in
First Person: concentration on self and its interaction with world and others, EXPRESS feelings/emotion, and are UNSENTIMENTAL, SERIOUS, and REALISTIC.
Themes in Blues Lyrics include the tackling of

S,T,H,TWTL,U,P
20
Themes in Blues Lyrics include the tackling of realistic and previously taboo subjects such as sex, travel, hoboing, trouble with the law, unemployment, and poverty.
Musical Characteristics of the Blues include Three Phase

21
Musical Characteristics of the Blues include Three Phase Stanzas AA'B, a melody with a falling contour, and a chord structure that follow progressions fof 12-, 8-, and 16- Bar Blues.
Vocal Timbre in the Blues includes a

Instrumental Timbre in the Blues includes
H,R,T,S
22
Timbre in the Blues includes a guttural moan or a piercing wail.

Instrumental Timbre in the Blues includes hissing, rattling, thumping and snapping.
The Melodic approach to Instrumentality and vocals in the blues

BN,PBIASOOTN,RFOTFHIRML

23
The Melodic approach to Instrumentality and vocals in the blues dwells on blues notes, prominent bending into and sliding out of these notes, and the rhythmic freedom of the field holler in rubato melodic lines.
The Griots of the Savannahs are thought by some to be the

24
The Griots of the Savannahs are thought by some to be the direct predecessors to the blues.
African Rainforest Music was thought to have influenced
RS,F,DM
25
African Rainforest Music was thought to have influenced improv Af-Am genres like ring shout, fife and drum music.
The stereotypes of Minsterlsy made blacks disindentify with
P,G,M,H
26
The stereotypes of Minstrelsy made blacks disidentify with the banjo and the fiddle. Blacks began to embrace the piano, the guitar, the mandolin and the harmonica in the blues.
Spirituals became the first type of music to be

27
Spirituals became the first type of music to be clearly identified as African Americna in 1800.
Ring Shout was a type of group folk

28
Ring Shout was a type of group folk spiritual that incorporated dance.
Minstrelsy became the first widely popular music to

29
Minstrelsy became the first widely popular music to draw upon Af-Am elements. Performers appeared in blackface and caricatured Af-Am behavior (song, dance) on plantations.
Minstrelsy used instruments such as the
B,F,B/S,T. BFCASTPM
30
Minstrelsy used instruments such as the banjo, fiddle, bone/spoons, and tambourine. Minstrelsy also introduced the banjo-fiddle combination and syncopation to popular music.
Daddy Rice wrote

31
Daddy Rice wrote "Jim Crow," about a rustic buffoonish character based on a black cowhand from Kentucky.
George W. Dixon wrote

32
George W. Dixon wrote "Zip Coon," a melody which later entered the white old-time fiddle tradition as "Turkey in the Straw."
Joel Walker Sweeney added a 4th melody string to the

33
Joel Walker Sweeney added a 4th melody string to the Banjo
In 1843, Dan Emmett introduced the first

34
In 1843, Dan Emmett introduced the first "complete" 3-Act Minstrelsy with "Old Dan Tucker."
Master Juba became the first black superster of

35
Master Juba became the first black superstar of Minstrelsy. He performed the pattin juba or the hambone.
Stephen Foster became America's first professional

36
Stephen Foster became America's first professional song writer.He started with the "Camptown Races" Minstrelsy in 1849 and created music that laid the foundation for the Tin Pan Alley style. Song "I Dream of Jeannie."
Monophonic refers to there being one

Runbatto means that a field holler is

Melismatic is a field holler with
37
Monophonic refers to there being one voice in a field holler. Rubatto means that a field holler is rhythmically free. Melismatic is a field holler with multiple notes per lyrical syllable.
Field Hollers were direct predecessors to the

38
Field Hollers were direct predecessors to the blues.
Work Songs made use of

39
Work Songs made use of antiphony, which was a form of call and response.
Ragtime introduced the musical concept of

40
Ragtime introduced the musical concept of syncopation to the blues.
The Arranged Spritual was the first written/literate

41
The Arranged Spiritual was the first written/literate Af-Am musical idiom.
Irving Berlin, known as the "King of Ragtime," was a man who ruled

42
Irving Berlin, known as the "King of Ragtime," was a man who ruled Tin Pan Alley.
Ragitme feaured an important chord progression known as

43
Ragtime featured an important chord progression known as Circle of Fifths.
African Derived aesthetics in marches, ragtime songs, fox trots, etc, include

PSHP N/BN

44
African Derived aesthetics in marches, ragtime songs, foxtrots, etc, include polyrhythms, syncopation, heterophony, polyphony, and neutral/blue notes.
Jazz and the Blues developed

45
Jazz and Blues developed indedependantly from one another.
In 1910, Dixieland Jazz and vaudeville/Tin Pan Alley Blues

46
In 1910, Dixieland Jazz and vaudeville/Tin Pan Alley Blues had become known as comfy bed partners.
Authenticity in Jazz was sometimres marked by its

Soul Jazz emphasized a brooding

47
Authenticity in Jazz was sometimes marked by its bluesiness.

Soul Jazz emphasized a brooding bluesy expression.
Blues is a "lyric folksong" genre, not a "narritive folksong" genre as the ballad.

48
The Blues is a "lyric folksong" genre, not a "narritive folksong" genre as the ballad
The Blues express emotions and feelings rather than

49
The Blues express emotions and feelings rather than narrate a story. There is NO NARRITIVE LINEARITY in the Blues.
As the Blues express emotions and feelings, it makes use of

50
As the Blues express emotions and feelings, it makes use of floating verses, which are formulaic snatches of lyrics.
Ballads were songs sung by rural whites in a capella that dealt with

51
Ballads were songs sung by rural whites in a capella that dealt with subjects like murders and hangings.
Rural Blacks started singing songs with

52
Rural Blacks started singing songs with heroic/badman black
Sylvester Weaver was a 1920's blues artist that helped move the blues towards

53
Sylvester Weaver was a 1920's blues artist that helped move the blues towards more urban sounds. He is best know for recording "Guitar Rag." Leon McAuliffe immortalized this song in his "Steel Guitar Rag."
Papa Charlie Jackson was a six-string banjo player from

54
Papa Charlie Jackson was a six-string banjo player from New Orleans who was considered the "first rural bluesman to record." "Ash-Tray Blues" sample played in class."
Blind Lemon Jefferson was among the first Af-Am acoustic guitarists to record.

HP,CEW,ACPSLRL,
Black Snake Moan
55
Blind Lemon Jefferson was among the first Af-Am acoustic guitarists to record.
He exemplefied traits seen as regional Texan: High-pitched, clearly enunciated words, and cleanly played single line responsorial lines. "Black Snake Moan."
Blind Arthur Blake was known as Ragtime Guitar's

56
Blind Arthur Blake was known as Ragtime Guitar's Foremost Pricker, rather than a Bluesman. He was the most prolific on record among the first generation of acoustic Blues musicians. "Diddy Wah Diddy." "Police Dog Blues."
Henry Thomas belongs to a generation of songsters with a wide
"Bull Doze Blues," WABCH as "Goin' Up The Country."
57
Henry Thomas belongs to a generation of songsters with a wide repertoire of songs who incorporated the Blues as they emerged. Thomas' "Bull Doze Blues" was adopted by Canned Heat as "Going Up the Country," a Woodstock Anthem
Blind Willie Johnson is best known as one of the pioneers of
"Dark Was The Night, Cold Was The Ground"
58
Blind Willie Johnson is best known as one of the pioneers of the Gospel Blues, a type of music that was Blues in form but spiritual in its lyrics. He had a gruff, guttural moan similar to Delta Bluesman, even though he was from Texas. Masterful (Pocket Knife) slide player. "Dark was the Night, Cold was the Ground," regarded by Ry Cooper as most transcendant piece of American music.
Charlie Patton is known as the FOUNDER of the
HHAGVSAAPGS. HWAASWHGAIFA
59
Charlie Patton is known as the founder of the DELTA BLUES. He had a gruff vocal style and a percussive guitar style. He was also a showman with his guitar and influenced future artists like T-Bone Walker and Jimi Hendrix. "Down the Dirt Road Blues."
Son House is known as the FATHER of the

60
Son House is known as the FATHER of the Delta Blues. He influenced most hard delta blues artists from Robert Johnson to Muddy Waters. "Grinning in Your Face." "Death Letter Blues."
Mississippi John Hurt used a melodic-fingerpricking

SOHSAOTS-F6AAOAFMCBHS. UFUTATLTPTG
61
Mississippi John Hurt used a melodic-fingerpricking style in his songs. Some of his songs appeared on the Smithsonian-Folkway's 6-album Anthology of American Folk Music complied by HARRY SMITH in 1952. Urban Folkies used this anthology to learn to play the guitar.
In 1963, Mississippi John Hurt played on a folk

62
In 1963, Mississippi John Hurt played on a folk revival circuit and was an inspiration to all fingerprickers. "Stack O Lee." "Avalon Blues." "Louis Collins." "Coffee Blues." "Got the Blues, Can't Be Satisfied."
Lonnie Johnson was known as a hot

63
Lonnie Johnson was known as a hot licks specialist ans played acoustic Blues and the early Jazz guitar.
Jim Crow laws and sharecropping created a _____ _____ in the Delta Blues.

64
Jim Crow laws and sharecropping created a bleak quality in the Delta Blues.
The Memphis Blues came from the Cotton

BSS,WCH,FL,MM,SJE
65
The Memphis Blues came from the Cotton Capital and Exchange Center: an ECONOMIC and CULTURAL crossroads for MS, TN, AK, LA, and AL. Beale Street Sheiks, W.C. Handy, Furry Lewis, Memphis Minnie, and Sleepy John Estes were some of the best known performers.
Frank Stokes was the founding father of the

"Ain't Nobody's Business If I Do."
66
Frank Stokes was the founding father of the Memphis Blues. He was a member of the Beale Street Sheiks in 1925, and was also a hoboing songster and tent show performer.
"Ain't Nobody's business if I do." "Mr. Crump don't like it."
A Jug Band was a band that used cheap instruments like

J,K,W,B,F,M,G,ATH. KACTTUMOFBSAEJB. TFOLUCL-L,C,AEM.
67
A Jug Band was a band that used cheap instruments like a jug, kazoo, washboard, banjo, fiddle, mandolin, guitar, and the harmonica. Jug Bands were known as the counterpart to the upbeat music of black stringbands and early Jazz bands. They were typically found in large urban centers like Louisville, Cincinatti, and especially Memphis.
The Memphis Jug Band included

WH,FL,VS
"Cocaine Habit Blues." "In The Jailhouse Now."
68
The Memphis Jug Band included Walter Horton (Harp), Furry Lewis (guitar), Vol Stevens (Mandolin) and typically played the guitar and the harp. "In the Jailhouse Now." "Cocaine Habit Blues."
The Cannon Jug Stompers were the most ____ jug band and were led by

69
The Cannon Jug Stompers were the most successful jug band and were led by Gus Cannon, a banjo and rack jug player. Noah Lewis, a member of the Cannon Jug Stompers, was an influential harpist. "Minglewood Blues." "Voila Lee Blues."
In 1962, the Cannon Jug Stompers recorded more songs like

POYF, NWB, and VSB.
70
In 1962, the Cannon Jug Stompers recorded more songs like "Pallet on Your Floor," "New Minglewood Blues," and with Vol Stevens, "Vol Stevens' Blues."
The Mississippi Sheiks were known as a stringband that played

TMSWCOTCF
"Sittin On Top Of The World."
71
The Mississippi Sheiks were known as a stringband that played dance music and the bawdy blues. The MS Sheiks were composed of the Chatmon family. Lonnie Chatmon, Bo Carter, Sam Chatmon, Memphis Slim. "Sittin on the Top of the World."
The Risque/Bawdy/Dirty/Double Entendre Blues were performed in most

BSLCRSJATSUH
"IKSOIIFCSI," "BIYFB," "WIO"
72
The Risque/Bawdy/Dirty/Double Entendre Blues were performed in most blues styles like classical, rural, stringband, jugband, and the semi-urban hokum. CLASSIC: "I'll Keep Sittin on it If I Can't Sell it." RURAL: "Banana in Your Fruit Basket" (Bo Carter). HOKUM: "Wipe it Off" (Lonnie Johnson).
The Hokum Blues were known as a ____ form of the

BAWBITLCTOM,TS,V,ABSBM. "It's Tight Like That."
73
The Hokum Blues were known as a risque form of the blues and were based in the low comedy traditions of minstrelsy, tent shows, vaudeville, and black string band music. The Top Exponents of the Hokum Blues were Tampa Red and Georgia Tom. "It's Tight Like That."
Ragtime and Stride Piano were both African American pianistic

IABSDITBOTS
74
Ragtime and Stride Piano were both African American pianistic genres that involved rhtymically dynamic interpretations of Western-Harmony dominated Tin Pan Alley Compositions. Improvisatoinal and bluesy styles developed in the Brothels of the south.
BOOGIE WOOGIE made use of an

BWWAHIITCORnRRABP
75
BOOGIE WOOGIE made use of an 8-Beat Rhythm and had bass lines that became a staple of Blues Country and the Blues Guitar. BOOGIE WOOGIE was also highly influential in the creation of Rock'n Roll rhythm and bass parts.
The "Cow Cow Blues" by Chrales Davenport became the

C"PT"SBTFBMTU"BW"IAST-"PTBW"
76
The "Cow Cow Blues" by Charles Davenport became the oldest song of the Piano Blues. Clarence "PineTop" Smith became the first Blues Musician to use "Boogie Woogie" in a song title--"Pinetop's Boogie Woogie."
Speckled Red created the Blues Piano song

"TDD" and MTCTBS"IAS."
77
Speckled Red created the Blues Piano song "The Dirty Dozen," and Montana Taylor created the Blues Song "Indianna Avenue Stop."
In 1938 and 1939, Columbia Producer John Hammond created

78
In 1938 and 1939, Columbia Producer John Hammond created from "Spirituals to Swing" at Carnegie Hall.
Blues inflections are part of the ____ of Jazz.

CBAJMFAEBBSTJ.
79
Blues inflections are part of the vocabulary of Jazz. Count Bassie and Jay McShann favored an exceptionally Blues-Based style to Jazz.
BLUES SHOUTERS and their bands laid the foundation for

B,M,W,B
80
BLUES SHOUTERS and their bands laid the foundation for jump blues/rhythm and blues. (Basie, McShann, Witherspoon, Brown)
Leroy Carr was the originator of the slow, sophisticated blues category called the

81
Leroy Carr was the originator of the slow, sophisticated blues category called the "blues ballad." ("How Long Blues." "Blues Before Sunrise." In the Evening When the Sun Goes Down."
Georgia Tom Dorsey was a Hokum duo with _____ and is known as the
82
Georgia Tom Dorsey was a Hokum duo with Tampa Red and is known as the "Father of Modern Gospel."
Little Brother Montgomery was a Blues Pianist famous for the song

TFTIMTB
83
Little Brother Montgomery was a Blues Pianist famous for the song "The First Time I Met the Blues."
Roosevelt Sykes was a Blues Pianist that created songs like

44B, NTITRT, TH
84
Roosevelt Sykes was a Blues Pianist that created songs like "44 Blues," "Night Time is the Right Time," and "The Honeydripper."
Sunnyland Slim secured many breaks for Post-War Bluesmen like

85
Sunnyland Slim secured many breaks for Post-War Bluesman like like Muddy Waters.
Georgia White was known as a Risque Blues artist and created songs like\\

HNGTFTPM, IICSIIG, AB

86
Georgia White was known as a Risque Blues artist and created songs like "Hot Nuts, Get Them From the Peanut Man," If I can't Sell it, I'm gonna..." and "Alley Boogie."
The East Coast Blues were known as the

VA, NC, SC, GA, AL
87
The East Coast Blues were known as the "Piedmont Blues." Piedmont refers to the foothills of VA, NC, SC, GA, and AL.
Musically, the Piedmont Blues was known for its use of alternating

TMF, ISRGI, AISSI
88
Musically, the Piedmont Blues was known for its use of alternating-thumb melodic fingerpricking, its strong ragtime guitar influence, and its strong stringband influence.
Some of the premiere artists of the Piedmont Blues included:

BWM, BBF, JW, BB, RGD
89
Some of the premiere artists of the Piedmont Blues included:

Blind Willie McTell, Blind Boy Fuller, Josh White, Blind Blake, and the Reverand Gary Davis.
Blind Willie McTell was known as a ____,____,and ____ artist who used


90
Blind Willie McTell was known as a Rags, Risque Blues, and standard Blues artist who used a 12 and 6 string guitar. "Statesboro Blues." "Searching the Desert for the Blues."
Blind Boy Fuller played a number of sytles that incorporated a ____. He was also known for a style called ____.

RERTTIFTOTEC.

91
Blind Boy Fuller played a number of sytles that incorporated a rhythmic emphasis rather than the intricate fingerwork typical of the East Coast. He was also known for a style called Bottleneck a la Delta. "Meat Shakin' Woman." "Get Your Yas Yas Out."
Big Bill Broonzy was the most successful and prolific Blues musician of the ____. Broonzy was one of the first Bluesman to record with the ____ and have an ____.

92
Big Bill Broonzy was the most successful and prolific Blues musician of the 1930s. He was one of the first Bluesman to record with the electric guitar and have have an r&b/blues combo.
After World War II, Big Bill Broonzy moved into the Folk

93
After World War II, Big Bill Broonzy moved into the "Folk Blues" idiom and became the first Af-Am Folk Bluesman to tour Europe and Britain.
Skip James was from the Betonia school of the ____ was an accomplished ____. He formed a ____ and was known for songs like "ISG," "HTKFB."

94
Skip James was from the Betonia School of the Delta Blues and was an accomplished pianist and guitarist. He formed a Gospel Quartet and was known for songs like "I'm so Glad," and "Hard Time Killing Floor Blues."
Bukka White was known for using a hard, ____ in the tradition of ____ and ____. White specialized in ____ and percussive ____ on his ____ ____ ____.

95
Bukka White was known for using a hard, percussive Delta playing style in the tradition of Charlie Patton and Son House. He specialized in train songs and percussive effects on his National Resonator Guitar. He played the guitar with a slide. "Parchman Farm Blues," and "Shake em' On Down," are some of his most famous songs.
"Panama Unlimited," by Tom Rush and "Fixin to Die," by Bob Dylan are songs originally played by

96
"Panama Unlimited," by Tom Rush and "Fixin to Die," by Bob Dylan are songs originally played by Bukka White.
The Reverend Gary Davis played Banjo and Guitar in a ____ with ____.

HSITVTOTBBWTLTOS.

97
The Reverend Gary Davis played Banjo and Guitar in a string band with Willie Walker. He sang in the vocal tradition of the Blues but with the lyrical tradition of spirituals. He is known for "Samson and Delilah," Cocaine Blues," and "I Can't Keep from Crying," among others.
Blind Willie Walker was possibly the most advanced of acoustic

HU"FLR" IHP. HAUFV.

98
Blind Willie Walker was possibly the most advanced of acoustic fingerstylists from the first generation. He used "filigree linear runs" in his playing. Walker also used floating verses "asked for water, she gave me gasoline."