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100 Cards in this Set

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Hominid evolution
-human-like animal
-includes humans and human-like beings until 5mil years ago
-
genus Australopithecus
-1-4 mya ago
-named after Australia, despite being from Africa
Homo neanderthalensis
-a parallel evolutionary branch of the genus Homo, that lived from 300,000 years ago until 30,000 years ago
-complex culture
-ritually buried with pollen and fibrous material, small animals, musical instruments
mind and mental states
-Mental states - internal subjective experiences (thoughts, feelings perceptions, awareness, consciousness)
-mind is a collection of mental states
general features of vertebrate brains
-forebrain, cerebrum, optic tectum (middlebrain), medulla (rearbrain)
-cerebrum covers most of the brain, with a little stem that has the medulla at the bottom
anatomical terms used to describe locations
-anterior = front
-posterior = back
-lateral = side
-medial = middle
-dorsal = up
-ventral = down
meninges: dura mater, arachnoid layer, pia mater
-dura mater = hard mother
-arachnoid layer = the filamentous saran wrap thing
-pia mater = soft mother that is like skin

ALL MADE OF COLLAGEN, TOUGH AND ELASTIC-Y, COLLECTIVELY CALLED MENINGES
cerebral spinal fluid
-between the arachnoid and pia mater layers
-produced in brain, flows around in brain and spinal cord as well, entire CNS is bathed in this fluid
cerebral cortical lobes
-occipital lobe = vision
-parietal lobe = somatosensory sensation
-temporal = auditory, memory function
-frontal lobe =reasoning and problem solving
cerebellum
-sensory perception and motor output
limbic system
-hippocampus, amygdala
-operates by influencing the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system
-controls emotions, motivations, emotional memory
-includes parts of the temporal lobe
brain stem
-spinal cord, pons, cerebellum, mid/hind-brain, diencephalon
-structurally joins spinal cord and brain
Gray/white matter
-Gray matter = cell bodies of nerve cell and glial cells, make up the mass of the brain
-White matter = nerve fibers that connect the layers of the brain together - the ventricles
cerebral arteries
anterior cerebral artery feeds the anterior part of the cortex, the middle and front arteries do the same, respectively
cerebral cortex
includes all the lobes - pretty much the generic brain
GAYSAL BANGLIA
cellular structures underneath the cortex like the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus
diencephalon
thalmus and hypothalmus
[brainstem]
midbrain
superior and inferior colliculi (for sensory information from the outside)
[brainstem]
hindbrain
pons and medulla
[brainstem]
cranial nerves
There are 12 nerves that control the body in the brain. Nerves leave through the brainstem

10- vagus nerve
CNS
Brain and spinal cord
PNS
Somatic
-muscle - movement
-sensory - sense information
-enteric - gastrointestinal connection
sympathetic NS
-fight/flight - crisis situation
-Increased HR, BP
-lung airway, vein, pupil dialation
parasympathetic NS
rest/recuperationRRRR
decreased HR, BP
lung, airway, vein, pupil constriction
neurons vs. glial cells
1e11 neurons, 5e12 glial cells
structure of SUCK the neuron
dendrites, cell body (with the axon hillock), then axon, myelin, axon terminal (TEH ENDZORS)
types of glial cells
-EPENDYMAL: small ovoid, secretes with CSF
-ASTROCYTE: star-shaped, symmetrical, nurture and support, included in nerve growth factor
-OLIGODENDRAL: assymetrical, forms myelin around axons in brain & spinal cord
-MICROGLIAL: small crazy shaped, defensive functions
Structure and properties of water
-polar covalent bond
-water is sticky to itself
-Hydrogen bonds
-good solvent
polarity of molecules
electrons are shared
hydrophobic
does not dissolve in water, non-polar molecules
hydrophillic
dissolves in water, polar molecules
bonding properties of carbon
four electrons, bonds with 4 things
amino acids
-basic building block for protein
-requires an acid group and an amine group attached to the same carbon
peptide bonds
covalently link together amino acids to form peptide bonds
proteins
amino acids covalently linked together by peptide bonds
structure of proteins
PRIMARY- how myoglobin all line up
SECONDARY- how they locally fold up into alpha-helices
TERTIARY- how the whole thing folds into a big blob
elemental composition of the human body
by weight.

oxygen 65
carbon 18.5
hyrdrogen 9.5
nitrogen
calcium
phosphorous
potassium
sulfur
sodium
chlorine
biological macromolecules
PROTEIN - chain of amino acids that form body and also function chemically, like enzymes

CARBOHYDRATE - carbons and hydrogens and oxygens, main source of energy

FAT/LIPID - carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, mostly carbon and hydrogen

NUCLEIC ACIDS - storage of information
phospholipid bilayer
the border of nerve cells that is impermeable by hydrophilic stuff
dimensions of molecules and cells
-lipid bilayer = 5nm
-medium size protein = 5nm
-bacterial cells = .1um-10um
-distance between nerve cells 100nm
-small molecule = .5nm
-nerve cell body 5-100um
bilayer biological membrane
-hydrophilic outer edge
-potato-like structures
-diameter is about 5nm
DNA/RNA
-Composed of adenine, cytosine, thymine, guanine
-looks like DNA, with an extra copy of oxygen, single strand
gene
fundamental unit of heredity
genetic code
relationship between DNA nucleotides and the amino acids in proteins
translation
making of protein
transcription
mRNA copying the DNA
Historical timeline of study in genetics
Darwin - diversity of living organisms understood by natural selection

Mendel - traits segregate and sort in an orderly fashion during reproduction. Genes underly traits; they are particulate factors that segregate and sort

Niels Bohr - quantum theory of atomic structure
-uncertainty principle
Avery and DNA
He proved DNA was genetic material because he was able to transform other cells' properties
Hershey-Chase blender experiment (1952)
They put e. coli and virus phage and a radioactive isotope of sulfur (where the virus lives), saying that whatever the virus eats to replicate itself = the genetic material.

Proved DNA was primary genetic material
Rosalind Franklin
Did x-ray crystallography
Linus Pauling
Made the toy model of the alpha-helix
neuronal axon
-sends action potential out to other cells
-axon is made of lipid bilayer
Na/K pump
pump that keeps the ion concentration good, powered by ATP
ATP
-Atropine triphosphate
-main source of intracellular energy
Energy consumption by brain
-Bodies require 700kcal/day, brain uses 60% of that.
-60% of that = 250kcal is used by Na/K pump
neuronal ion gradient
different concentrations of ions in/out of cells
membrane potential
-resting = -70mV
-action potential happens after -55mV
voltage gated ion channels
channels that open at a certain voltage
action potential
-all or nothing mechanism
-happens once the axon hillock gets enough EPSPs to "initiate"
refractory period
the period after an action potential that the neuron can't fire even if it gets lots of EPSPs
myelin
-fatty sheaths that speed up the action potential (10k times faster if myelinated)
-speeds this up via saltatory conduction
nodes of Ranvier
the breaks in the myelin where the signal hops during saltatory conduction
disruption of action potential and neural signaling
too much water will prevent nerve signaling
water poisoning
-excess of water intake, dilution of ions that are essential for the functioning of the nervous system and heart
-hyponatremia, can lead to seizure or heart attack
Paracelsus' quote
everything is a poison, just depends on the dosage
tetrodotoxin
-potent nerve toxin that blocks voltage-gated sodium channels
-found in the puffer fish's internal organs (Fugu rubripes)
-does not cross the blood-brain barrier
-prevents PNS from generating normal action potential
-death from respiratory paralysis
TTX resistance
There are mutations of amino acids in the sodium channel

ex. the garter snakes that eat newts
saxitoxin
-blocks some of the sodium channels
-hydrophilic- paralyzes people and fish (paralytic shellfish poisoning
local anesthetics
-numb sensation in one spot
-makes the sodium channel malfunction so it doesn't open and close normally
blood-brain barrier
-hydrophobic so lipophobic things can't go through
retina, eye to brain circuitry, vision
-retina extracts information from the light signal -- needs movement, otherwise it won't spike
-sends signal to brain
-brain converts signal to conscious experience
Tobi Delbruck and the design and construction of a silicon retina
simulates a retina. stupid.
efficiency comparisons - brain vs. integrated circutry
brain is 1mil times more power efficient than computers
neuromorphic engineering
scientific area that tries to mimic the human brain with technology
"Moore's Law" and the future of silicon technology
information capacity of chips doubles every 1.5-2 years.

thinks that thing will plateau in 20 years
disruption of action potential and nerve signaling
toxins block the sodium channels
batrachatoxins (BTX)
-found in the frog (Phyllobates terribilis)
-found on poisonous skin gunk, used for spears
-also found in birds in New Guinea
-ACTUALLY comes from Choresine beetles

-interferes with action potential by wedging itself into the voltage gated sodium channel and prevents it from closing

-doesn't cross blood-brain barrier
-paralyzes

-VGSC protects bird and frog
ciguatoxins (CTX) and ciguatera
-diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
-sleep problems, anxiety, depression, hallucinations

-ocean born molecule found in dinoflagellates

-LOWER THE THRESHOLD VOLTAGE FOR OPENING THE SODIUM CHANNEL (neurons are hyperexcitable)
ways to interfere with sodium channel
-blocking channels closed
-interfering with channel closure
-lowering the threshold for opening the channel
-and other stuff

BOTTOM LINE: NERVE SIGNALING DOES NOT WORK CORRECTLY WHEN VGSC PROTEINS ARE MESSED WITH
structure and function of synapses
-synapse means "join together"
-they release NT
dendritic spines
-knobby structures that come of dendrites, increase surface area that axons can attach to
hyperpolarization, IPSP
-when it goes MORE negative, neuron is less likely to fire

-Cl goes into the neuron and makes it more negative
depolarization, EPSP
-when it goes LESS negative, neuron is more likely to fire

-sodium or calcium goes into the cell to make it less negative
integration of multiple inputs by neurons
summation of all the IPSPs and EPSPs
ionotropic receptor, ligand gated ion channel
-two names for the same thing
-ligands are smaller molecules that bind to larger molecules

-NT sticks to a binding site, the channel opens, ions flow.
metabotropic receptor, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)
-two names for the same thing
-changes the cellular chemistry (metabolism)

-G-protein binds to a NT activated receptor protein, then
Otto Loewi and the discovery of the NT concept
So, there's a frog heart in saline solution (still beating). Lowei stimulated (sent a charge) into the vagus nerve of the heart (which is parasympathetic) and the heart slows down. Then, he takes the saline and puts it into another jar with a beating frog heart, and that heart slows down. Thus, there must be some aqueously transmitted thing that tells the heart to slow down; neurotransmitter.
acetylcholine
-discovered by Otto Loewi
-parasympathetic NT
GPCRs and amplification
-NT binds to proteins, which then bind to GPCRs, which then activates other stuff
criteria for establishing NT action
-must be present (usually synthesized) in neuron

-must transmit a message to the next cell after it is released

-same response is produced when just the chemical is placed on a target cell

-must be a way of removing this substance
methods of removing NT from synaptic cleft
-reuptake into axon terminal
-uptake into nearby glial cells
-enzymatic degradation
-diffusion out of the synaptic cleft
acetylcholine (synthesis and degredation)
-made up of acetate and choline
-connected by choline acetyltransferase
-killed by acetylholinesterase (AChE)
acetylcholine circutry in the nervous system
-can't cross the BBB, so if it is used in brain or spinal cord it is made there
-used in the brain, autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic) and the neuromuscular junction
glutamate and CNS excitation
-most abundant NT in the body
-excitatory
-acts at the ionotropic glutamate receptor (there are many different kinds, but they all respond to glutamate)
-when glutamate binds, calcium flows, causing depolarization, an EPSP
GABA and CNS inhibition
-Gamma Amino Butyric Acid
-made from glutamate
-second most abundant NT, after glutamate
-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) takes off the carboxyl group from glutamate
-main receptor - GABA-A

-when GABA binds to GABA-A receptor, channel opens and CL- enters the cell, hyperpolarizing the cell and creating IPSP
serotonin
-5-hydroxytryptamine
-made from tryptophan => decarboxylated, hydroxylase

-our bodies can't make tryptophan, we have to eat it
dopamine
-made from phenylalanine => tyrosine => DOPA => dopamine
-hydrophilic
norepinephrine/noradrenaline
-A neurotransmitter made from dopamine by adding an OH
-secreted by adrenal gland
-parasympathetic NS activation
epinephrine/adrenaline
-Made from dopamine, remove a hydrogen from the amine group, add a methyl group to it (instead)
-secreted by adrenal gland
-sympathetic NS activation
monoamine oxidase
they break down neurotransmitters inside cells, whereas AChE breaks them down outside cells

breaks down serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine because they all have amines