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12 Cards in this Set

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Arteries of the upper limb

Aorta
arch of aorta gives off three branches
a) brachiocephalic artery - divides into:
1) right common carotid artery - passes superiorly into neck
2) right subclavian artery - arches laterally, deep to clavicle; to right upper limb
b) left common carotid artery - directly off arch of aorta
c) left subclavian artery - directly off arch f aorta; to left upper limb
Arteries of the upper limb

Subclavian Artery
1) arches lterally across base of neck
a) passes over 1st rib - name changes to axillary artery
2) branches of subclavian artery to posterior shoulder region (run with nerves of same name):
a) suprascapular artery - o supraspinatus & infraspinatus muscles (with suprascapular nerve)
b) dorsal scapular artery - to rhomboid & levator scapulae muscles (with dorsal scapular nerve)
3) other branches - vertebral artery, internal thoracic artery
Arteries of the upper limb

Axillary Artery
1 of 2
1) begins at first rib (as continuation of subclavian artery); ends at lateral border of teres major muscle (continues into arm as brachial artery)
2) passes deep to insertion of pectoralis minor muscle (inserts on coracoid process of scapula)
Arteries of the upper limb

Axillary Artery
2 of 2
3) branches
a) lateral thoracic artery
1) runs down lateral chest wall
2) supplies serratus anterior (with long thoracic nerve) & pectoral major, minor muscles
3) major blood supply from mammary gland
b) anterior circumflex humeral artery - small branch to anterior deltoid musce
1) passes around anterior humerus to anastomose with post. circumflex humeral artery
c) posterior circumflex humeral artery
1) emerges in posterior shoulder through quadrangular space (with axillary nerve)
2) encircles posterior-lateral humerus deep to deltoid muscle - supplies deltoid muscle
d) scapulary artery - short trunk that passes posteriorly; divides into:
1) thoracodorsal artery - to latissimus dorsi muscle (with thoracodorsal nerve)
2) circumflex scapular artery- to teres major & minor muscles, infraspinatus muscle
a) emerges in posterior shoulder region via triangular space; boundarie
a) medial-superio - teres minor muscle
b)inferior - teres major muscle
c) lateral - long head of triceps brachii muscle
b) supplies teres major & minor muscles
c) wraps around lateral border of scapula & into infraspinous fossa - supplies infraspinatus muscle
Brachial Artery
1) begins at lateral border of teres major muscle - continuation of axillary artery
2) runs in neurovascular compartment of medial arm with median nerve & brachial vein
3) gives only one branch in the arm - Deep brachial artery (pofunda brachii artery)
a) branches off high in arm, near axilla
b) runs around medial-posterior humerus in radial (spiral) groove (with radial nerve)
c) supplies all heads of triceps brachii muscle
4) short muscular branches directly from brachial artery supply muscles of anterior arm
5) brachial artery passes through cubital fossa
a) contents of cubital fossa:
1) median nerve
2) brachial artry
3) tendon of biceps brachii muscle
b) bicipital aponeurosis from biceps brachii muscle overlies & protects cotents of cubtal fossa
c) NOTE: radial & ulnar nerves do not pass through cubital fossa
6) brachial artery ends just below elbow joint - divides into radial artery & ulnar artery
Radial Artery
1) terminal branch of brachial artery - to lateral forearm
2) runs down lateral forearm, deep to brachioradialis muscle; supplies muscles of lateral forearm
a) at wrist, pulse felt on radial (lateral) side, betweeen tendons of brachioradialis & flexor carpi radialis muscles
3) crosses lateral side of wrist & enters anatomical snuff box
a) gives off dorsal arterial arch of hand - across dorsal side of wrist & hand
4) radial artery continues betweeen 1st & 2nd metacarpal bones (passes through 1st dorsal interosseous muscle) to enter deep palm of hand
5) provides major blood supply to deep palmar artrial arch of hand
Ulnar Artery
1) terminal branch of brachial artery - to medial forearm
2) passes deep to pronator teres muscle
3) runs down medial forearm, deep to flexor carpi ulnaris (with ulnar nerve) - supplies muscles of medial forearm
4) in proximal forearm, ulnar artry gives off:
a) anterior inteosseous artery
1) runs deep along anterior side of interosseous membrane
2) supplies deep muscles of anterior forearm
b) posterior interosseous artery
1) passes through interosseous membrane into posterior forearm
2) supplies muscles of posterior forearm
5) ulnar artery continues into hand - major blood supply to superficial palmar arterial arterial arch
Blood Supply to Hand
1) three aterial arches in hand - derived from radial & ulnar arteries
a) one dorsal arch, two palmar arches
b) branches from all 3 arches supply digits
c) deep & superficial palmar arches seperated by tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis & flexor digitorum profundus muscles
2) several arterial branches interconnect deep & superficial palmar arches & dorsal arch-prevents inadequate blood flow to hand during grasping due to compression of vessels
a) collateral circulation - interconnected blood supply fro several arteries; common feature in body, especially around major joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hips, knee, ankle)
b) ensures adequate blood flow regardless of joint or limb position
Veins of Upper Limb

Superficial Veins
x 3
1) Cephalic Veins
a) arises from lateral side of dorsal venous arch on posteerior side of hand
b) runs up anterior-lateral side of forearm & arm
c) ives seep within deltopectoral triangle (between deltoid & pectoralis major muscles) - drains into axillary vein
Veins of Upper Limb

Superficial Veins
x 3
2) Basilic vein
a) arises from medial side of dorsal venous arch of hand
b) runs up anterior-medial side of forearm
c) in distal 1/3 of arm, dives deep to join brachial vein of arm
Veins of Upper Limb

Superficial Veins
x 3
3) Median Cubital vein
a) runs diagonally across cubital fossa, connecting cephalic vein to basilic vein
b) is superficial to bicipital aponeurosis & cubital fossa contents
c) often site for collection of blood samples
Deep veins
1) veins of same name accompany artries of upper limb
a) radial & ulnar veins > brachial vein > acillary vein > subclavian vein > brachiocephalic vein > superior vena cava > heart
2) subclavian vein joins with internal jugular vein from head & neck regions to form right or left brachiocephalic vein
3) right & left brachiocephalic veins join to form superior vena cava
4) superior vena cava empties into right atrium of heart