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17 Cards in this Set

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Compare the wall of a vein with that of an artery
It's thinner
Compare the blood content of veins with artiers
Contain more blood
What two types of changes in diameter can arteries undergo?

What are the classes of arteries?
What are small arteries called? Why are they considered small?
Vasoconstriction: decrease lumen size
Vasodilation: increase

Elastic (conducting) or muscular (distribution)

internal diameter of 20um or less, arterioles
What are capillaries?
What do they do?
What are their two basic structures?
Endothelial tube inside a basal lamina
Form networks, surround muscle fibers, radiate through connective tissue, weave throughout active tissues

Continuous
Fenestrated: flattened = sinusoids
If total blood volume is unevenly distributed, how is it maintained?
What is capacitance?
Venoconstriction maintains blood volume

Veins are capacitance vessels: relationship between blood volume and pressure; they act as balloons
What opposes the movement of blood? What must happen for blood to flow?
Resistance of cardiovascular system; pressure gradient must overomce total peripheral resistance
What is peripheral resistance?
Resistance of arterial system
What does capillary exchange allow the flow of? From where to where? Roles?
Water and solutes from capillaries to interstitial space

Placsma and Interst fluid in constant communication, assists in lipid and tissue protein transport, accelerates nutrient distribution, carries toxins and chemical stimuli to lymphoid tissues
How is capillary filtration achieved?
Capillary hydrostatic pressure forces water and solutes through gaps between adjacent endothelial cells in continuous capillaries. Size of solutes that move across are determined by dimensions of gap.

Results in reabsorption as solutes pumped into interstitial fluid
What two processes affect venous pressure and return?
Muscular compression and respiratory pump
If your muscles were producing lots of lactic acid you would expect your capillaries to do what?
Dilate
What would you expect to see happen to veins in cold temperature?
constric
Vasodilators accelerate blood flow in response to what conditions? What type of regulation is this?
Decreased O2 levels, increased CO2 levels
Lactic Acid
Nitric Acid
Rising K+/H+ concentrations in interstitial fluid
Inflammation
Elevated temperature

Autoregulation
How do neural system maintain vital organ blood flow? Specify what main center regulates this. Specifiec centers? NTs?
Adjust cardiac output and peripheral resistance

Medullary center:
Cardiac
Vasomotr: constrict via NE, dilate via NO
If there's an increased CO2 concentration in blood, amount of blood flow needs to do what?
Increase
What does light exercise result in? Heavy exercise?
Extensive vasodilation, increased venous return, rise in cardiac output

Increased blood flow to skeletal muscles, restriction of blood flow to nonessential organs
Describe the general functional patterns of blood.
Peripheral distribution of arteries and veins is symmetrical (except near heart)

Single vessels have several names as they cross anatomical boundaries

Arteries and corresponding veins usually travel together