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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
clinical definition of HTN
systolic > 140
diastolic > 90
2 main things that determine pressure
CO and inc'd PVR
t/f: catecholamines and Ang II decrease PVR
F, inc
% of primary HTN cases
mnemonic for the secondary HTN's
Renal --> most common 2ndary
complication mnemonic for HTN
Heart hypertrophy
Eye changes (retinopathy)
Aortic Dissection/Aneurysm
Renal Disease
Thalamic Hemorrhage (strokes)
what direct effect does renal artery stenosis cause
renal hypoperfusion
some examples of 2ndary labile HTN
Genetic d/o's causing inc mineralocorticoids ==> HTN
11B hydroxylase deficiency
17a hydroxylase deficiency
inc'd mineralocorticoid receptor activity is weird side effect of what candy
which type of HTN (chronic/malignant) affects ALL arteries and arterioles
chronic HTN AKA
benign HTN
chronic htn causes hyaline changes in ______
chronic htn causes thickening of the media d/t inc'd amts of collagen, elastic tissue, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts where (arteries or arterioles)
muscular arteries
malignant htn causes what type of changes
hyperplastic arteriolar accompanied by fibrinoid necrosis
"onion skinning" is assoc. w/ which type of htn
acute/severe elevations of BP cause what?
hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis
htn is the most important risk factor for IHD over what age
atherosclerotic aneurysms mostly found in which part of the aorta
cirsoid aneurysms are caused by?
atherosclerosis of splenic artery
berry aneurysms related to defect in muscle layer of
cerebral arteries
syphilitic aneurysms usually occur in the _____ aorta
false aneurysms most often assoc. w/
post MI (ventricular TI)
definition of true aneurysm
affects entire wall of artery
initial dilation of aneurysm is usually saccular or fusiform
which is more often assoc. w/ aneurysm complication salmonella or staph
salmonella then staph
t/f clinical presentation of AA can be Asx w/ only prominent abdominal aortic pulsations
aneurysm risk of rupture related to size:
<4cm = ?
4-5cm = ?
5-6cm = ?
>6cm = ?
no risk
what size aneurysm is surg indicated in
t/f aortoenteric fistulas are not a late complication of reconstructive aortic surg
f, they are
better prognosis: thoracic or abdominal
arteriosclerotic aneurysms of ateries in extremities are rare except in what 2 LE arteries
popliteal and femoral
7 factors assoc. w/ dissecting aneurysms
1. htn
2. marfan's
3. pregnancy
4. bicuspid aortic valve
5. trauma
6. atherosclerosis
7. inflammatory injuries
dissection usually begins w/ a _____ _____ tear assoc. w/ an intimal plaque located in the _____ or _____
transverse intimal

ascending aorta or upper descending thoracic aorta near subclavian artery
atherosclerosis _____
t/f dissection usually involves just a portion of the aorta as it progresses distally
f, entire circumference of aorta
what is arterial dilation most likely initiated by
loss of elasticity of recoil strength in arterial wall
what is usually found in the sacculation
laminated clot
type I aortic dissection location
ascending aorta extending beyond
type II aortic dissection location
ascending aorta only
type IIIA aortic dissection location
begins in descending aorta but stops above diaphragm
type IIIB aortic dissection location
begins in descending aorta and extends below diaphragm
dissecting aneurysms also classed according as? (3)
subacute, acute, chronic
varicosities usually involved in what venous system
what other veins are affected?
perianal and pampiniform plexus
primary cause of varicose veins
inherent weakness in vessel wall (43% FHx)
2ndary cause of varicose veins? (2)
xs back pressure

weakening of wall by inflammation (vasculitis)
6 things that predispose you to venous thrombosis
1. cardiac failure
2. neoplasia
3. pregnancy or post partum
4. obesity
5. prolonged stasis
6. hypercoag states (factor V leiden)
what website did he get his facts about DVT and air travel?
90% of DVT's come from where
deep veins of LE's
what vein is the usual suspect in DVT's?
DVT can present clinically by (3)
local LE pain


erythema at DVT site
migratory thrombophlebitis assoc. w/ pancreas, colon, lung CA AKA
phlegmasia alba dolens AKA ____ occurs in ____ vein during what conditions _(3)__
milk leg


3rd trimester, postpartum, or pelvic surg
Vena Caval obstruction (VCO) is DVT variant caused by external occlusion usually in the ____ vena cava
external occlusion (tumors, aneurysms)

VCO caused by internal obstruction more commonly found in the _____ vena cava from the _____ and ____ veins

lower limbs and renal
cystic hygroma(turner's syndrome), lung lymphedema, or cystic lymphangectasis and familial milroy's dz are what?
congenital conditions causing lymphatic obstruction
acquired obstructive lymphadema caused by (6)
1. lymphangitis
2. parasites
3. metastasis
4. irradiation
5. trauma
6. surg
extreme LE lymphadema refered to as