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149 Cards in this Set

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BLOOD

THE RIVER OF LIFE
.
BLOOD

PART OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHATICS
.
BLOOD

CLASSIFIED AS A LIQUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE

NEARLY HALF IS MADE OF CELLS
.
BLOOD

ALKALINE PH 7.35-7.45
.
BLOOD

VISCOUS, RED (THICK, COLOR VARIES FROM BRIGHT SCARLETT TO DULL, BRICK RED)
.
BLOOD

AVERAGE ADULT

4-6 LITERS OF BLOOD
4000-6000cc
8-12 PINTS
16-24 CUPS
.
BLOOD

COUNTS FOR ABOUT 7-9% OF BODY WEIGHT
.
BLOOD FUNCTIONS:

TRANSPORTATION
REGULATION
PROTECTION
.
BLOOD FUNCTION: TRANSPORTATION

TRANSPORTATION:

NUTRIENTS
WASTES
OXYGEN
HORMONES
.
BLOOD FUNCTION: REGULATION

REGULATION:

FLUID ELECTROLYTE
ACID-BASE BALANCE
BODY TEMPERATURE
.
BLOOD FUNCTION: PROTECTION

PROTECTION:

AGAINST PATHOGENS
AGAINST BLOOD LOSS
(BLOOD CLOTTING)
.
TWO PARTS OF BLOOD:

PART 1: PLASMA-LIQUID PART OF BLOOD

PART 2: FORMED ELEMENTS-(CORPUSCLES)
ERYTHROCYTES-RED BLOOD CELLS
LEUKOCYTES-WHITE BLOOD CELLS
THROMBOCYTES (PLATELETS)
.
COMPOSITION OF PLASMA (LIQUID)

55% OF THE BLOOD PLASMA (LIQUID)= 91%WATER

45% OF THE FORMED ELEMENTS = 7% PROTEIN
.
ALBUMEN:

MADE UP BY THE LIVER

KEEPS BLOOD THICK (CONCENTRATED

TO MAINTAIN WATER IN THE BLOOD (BLOOD VOLUME)

DRAWING WATER INTO BLOOD
.
GLOBULINS:

MADE UP BY THE LIVER

ARE ANTIBODIES THAT PROTECT AGAINST DISEASE
.
FORMED ELEMENTS:

1. MAKE UP 45% OF THE BLOOD
2. CALLED BLOOD CELLS OR CORPUSCLES
3. COME FROM HEMOPOIETIC TISSUE
(HEMOPOIESIS) RED BONE MARROW
(MYLEOID TISSUE--ALL TYPES
.
ERYTHRO=RED BLOOD CELL= RBC'S

PRIMARY FUNCTION:
CARRY OXYGEN (O2) FROM LUNGS TO BODY TISSUES

SECONDARY FUNCTION: THEY ALSO CARRY CARBON DIOXIDE (C02) FROM TISSUES TO LUNGS
.
ERYTHROCYTES=RED BLOOD CELLS= RBC'S

THEY ARE BI CONCAVE DISKS (CAVES IN)

MAIN INGREDIENT:
HEMOGLOBIN (IRON & PROTEIN)

HEMOGLOBIN COMBINES WITH OXYGEN
EQUALS OXYHEMOGLOBIN
.
ERYTHROCYTES=RED BLOOD CELLS= RBC'S

RBC'S---NO NUCLEI

CANNOT GO THROUGH CELL DIVISION

THEY HAVE TO COME FROM BONE MARROW

BONE MARROW HAS TO BE ACTIVE IN REPRODUCING RBC'S
.
RED BONE MARROW:

STIMULATED:
BY THE HORMONE ERYTHROPOIETIN FROM THE KIDNEYS IN RESPONSE TO DECREASED OXYGEN (O2) IN BLOOD

HIGHER ALTITUDES: STIMULATED TO MAKE MORE
.
ERYTHROCYTES=RED BLOOD CELLS= RBC'S

RBC'S LIFESPAN:

120 DAYS OR 4 MONTHS

THEN BROKEN DOWN BY SPLEEN & LIVER
(IRON IS RECYCLED)
.
ERYTHROCYTES=RED BLOOD CELLS=RBC'S

LAB VALUES

NORMAL RBC LEVEL IS 4.5 TO 5.5 MILLION PER CUBIC MM
.
1/25 OF A DROP OF BLOOD

EQUALS

4-5 MILLION BLOOD CELLS
.
NORMAL HEMOGLOBIN (HGB)

12-18 GRAMS PER 100 ML BLOOD

12-15 FEMALE
14-18 MALE
.
NORMAL HEMOCRIT 45%

SEPARATION OF BLOOD INTO PLASMA & FORMED ELEMENTS
.
HEMATOCRIT = HCT

HEMOGLOBIN = HGB

HEMOGLOBIN AND HEMATOCRIT = HNH
.
LEUKOCYTES=WHITE BLOOD CELLS= WBC'S

FUNCTION:
TO DEFEND THE BODY FROM MICROORGANISMS THAT HAVE INVADED THE TISSUES OR BLOODSTREAM.

THEY HAVE THE ABILITY TO MOVE IN AND OUT OF BLOOD INTO THE TISSUES
.
LEUKOCYTES=WHITE BLOOD CELLS=WBC'S

STRUCTURE:
LARGER THAN RBC'S
THEY HAVE NUCLEI (CAN REPRODUCE)
THEY ARE COLORLESS (NO HEMOGLOBIN HGB)
.
LEUKOCYTES=WHITE BLOOD CELLS=WBC'S

LIFESPAN: DAYS, MONTHS OR YEARS
.
LEUKOCYTES=WHITE BLOOD CELLS=WBC'S

NORMAL LAB VALUE

5000-10,000 PER CU MM
.
FIVE KINDS OF LUEKOCYTES

-MOST ABUNDANT LISTED FIRST

1. NEUTROPHILS (PHAGOCYTE)ENGULFS/DESTROYS

2. LYMPHOCYTES (PRODUCES ANTIBODIES)

3. MONOCYTES (PHAGOCYTIC) ENGULF/DESTROY

4. EOSINOPHILS (INCREASED IN ALLERGIC CONDITIONS)

5. BASOPHILS (INCREASED IN INFLAMMATORY REACTION) ARTHRITIS/CHRONIC DISEASES
.
OUR BODYS 1ST LINE OF DEFENSE

SKIN-MUCUS MEMBRANE
.
OUR BODY'S 2ND LINE OF DEFENSE

INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

WHEN THE BODY TISSUES ARE INJURED, HISTAMINE IS RELEASED AND 3 EVENTS OCCUR

1. BLOOD VESSELS DILATE (RED/WARMTH)& LEAK. FLUID ESCAPES INTO TISSUES (SWELLING)

2. PAIN RECEPTORS ARE ACTIVATED

3. PHAGOCYTIC WBC'S ARE ATTRACTED TO THE AREA:
1ST-NEUTROPHILS
2ND-(SEVERAL HOURS LATER) MONOCYTES, IF THIS RESPONSE DOES NOT CONTROL AND KILL PATHOGENS, THE IMMUNE RESPONSE (BLISTERS/FEET)
.
THROMBOCYTES= PLATELETS= BLOOD CLOTTING
5 STEPS IN BLOOD CLOTTING:

1. INJURY IN BLOOD VESSEL (BLEEDING)

2. PLATELETS GATHER
A) FORM A PLATELET PLUG=DECREASES BLOOD LOSS
B) RELEASE SEROTONIN= BLOOD VESSEL TO CONSTRICT= DECREASES BLOOD LOSS
C) (ALONG WITH THE INJURED TISSUES) RELEASE OF THROMBOPLASTIN=ALSO CALLED PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR INITIATES BLOOD CLOTTING CASCADE

3. IN THE PRESENCE OF THROMBOPLASTIN, CLOTTING FACTORS AND CALCIUM
PROTHROMBIN CHANGES TO THROMBIN

4. THROMBIN CAUSES FIBROGEN TO CHANGE TO FIBRIN, WHICH FORMS A NETWORK OF FIBERS (A CLOT)

5. BLEEDING STOPS
.
THROMBOCYTES = PLATELETS = BLOOD CLOTTING

PROTHROMBLIN

ALWAYS IN BLOOD-MADE BY LIVER
.
THROMBOCYTES= PLATELETS = BLOOD CLOTTING

FIBERGEN
MADE BY LIVER
ALWAYS IN THE BLOOD
.
THROMBOCYTES=PLATELETS=BLOOD CLOTTING

NORMAL CLOTTING TIME 2-6 MINUTES
.
THROMBOCYTES=PLATELETS=BLOOD CLOTTING

SEROTONIN
-NOT FOUND IN BLOOD ALL OF THE TIME

FIBRIN
-NOT FOUND IN BLOOD ALL OF THE TIME

THROMBIN
-NOT FOUND IN BLOOD ALL OF THE TIME
.
REMEMBER IN THE PRESENCE OF

THROMBOPLASTIN (PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR)
CLOTTING FACTORS
AND
CALCIUM

PROTHROMBIN CHANGES TO THROMBIN
THROMBIN CAUSES FIBROGEN
TO CHANGE INTO FIBRIN
.
BLOOD

OTHER 2% "OTHER STUFF"
IONS
NUTRIENTS
WASTE PRODUCTS
GASES
HORMONES
HEAT
.
THROMBOCYTES=PLATELETS=BLOOD CLOTTING

LIFESPAN - 10 DAYS

NORMAL LAB VALUE =
150,000-300,000 PER CU MM
.
THROMBOCYTES=PLATELETS=BLOOD CLOTTING

STRUCTURE: SMALLER THAN RBC'S

NOT TRUE CELLS
INSTEAD
THEY ARE FRAGMENTS
OF A GIANT CELL CALLED A MEGAKARYOCTE
.
THROMBOCYTES=PLATELETS=BLOOD CLOTTING

FUNCTIONS: BLOOD CLOTTING
.
PLASMA
LIQUID PART IN BLOOD
VISCOUS
THICK
ALBUMIN
PLASMA PROTEIN MADE BY LIVER THAT MAINTAINS BLOOD VOLUME
HEMOPOIESIS
PRODUCTION OF BLOOD
HEMOGLOBIN
MAIN INGREDIENT OF RBC
ERYTHROPOIETIN
HORMONE FROM KIDNEYS THAT STIMULATED RED BONE MARROW TO PRODUCE MORE RBC'S
ERYTHROCYTE
RED BLOOD CELL
RBC
LEUKOCYTE
WHITE BLOOD CELL
WBC
MEGAKARYOCYTE
LARGE CELL THAT BREAKS UP AND FORMS PLATELETS
THROMBOCYTE
PLATELET
BASOPHILS
(LEAST) WBC'S THAT INCREASE IN INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS
EOSINOPHILS
WBC'S THAT INCREASE IN ALLERGIC CONDITIONS
LYMPHOCYTES
LEUKOCYTES THAT PRODUCES ANTIBODIES AND IMMUNITY
NEUTROPHILS
MOST ABUNDANT
PHAGOCYTIC WBC'S THAT ARE ATTRACTED TO THE AREA FIRST IN THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
MONOCYTES
PHAGOCYTIC WBC'S THAT ARRIVE SECOND IN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
HISTAMINE
SUBSTANCE THAT IS RELEASED AND TRIGGERS THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
SEROTONIN
SUBSTANCE RELEASES FROM PLATELETS THAT CONSTRICTS BLOOD VESSELS TO DECREASE LOSS
THROMBOPLASTIN
SUBSTANCE RELEASED THAT INITIATES THE BLOOD CLOTTING CASCADE
PROTHROMBIN
PROTEIN MADE BY LIVER AND IN THE BLOOD CHANGES TO THROMBIN IN THE PRESENCE OF THROMBOPLASTIN, CALCIUM, AND BLOOD CLOTTING FACTORS
FIBRINOGEN
A PROTEIN MADE BY THE LIVER AND FOUND IN THE BLOOD THAT CHANGES TO FIBRIN IN THE PRESENCE OF THROMBIN
FIBRIN
SUBSTANCE THAT FORMS A NETWORK OF FIBERS WHICH IS A CLOT
ANTIGEN
A SUBSTANCE THAT ACTIVATES THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO MAKE ANTIBODIES
ANTIBODY
A SUBSTANCE MADE BY THE BODY IN RESPONSE TO AN ANTIGEN AND DESTROYS IT
B CELLS
LYMPHOCYTES THAT PRODUCE PLASMA CELLS AND MEMORY CELLS THAT PRODUCE ANTIBODIES
PLASMA CELLS
PRODUCE ANTIBODIES IMMEDIATELY WHEN FORMED
MEMORY CELLS
REMEMBER THE ANTIGEN AND RESPONDS TO ANOTHER EXPOSURE TO THE SAME ANTIGEN
T CELLS
LYMPHOCYTES THAT DESTROY ANTIGENS BY RELEASING POISEN AND ATTRACTING MACROPHAGES
MACROPHAGE
MONOCYTE IN THE TISSUES THAT ENGULF AND DESTROYS ANTIGENS
COMPLETMENT
A GROUP OF PROTEINS THAT REACT TO AN ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEX AND DESTROYS THE ANTIGEN BY EXPLODING IT
THROMBIN
SUBSTANCE IN BLOOD CLOTTING THAT IS FORMED FROM PROTHROMBIN AND CAUSES FIBRINOGEN TO CHANGE TO FIBRIN
PH OF BLOOD
7.35 - 7.45
AMOUNT OF BLOOD IN LITERS
4 TO 6 LITERS
RBC'S PER CU MM
4.5 - 5.5 MILLION PER 1/25 DROP OF BLOOD
HEMOGLOBIN PER GRAMS/100 ML
12-18 PER GRAMS/100 ML
HEMATOCRIT (PERCENTAGE %)
45 % PERCENT
WBC'S PER CU MM
5000-10,000 PER CU MM 1/25 OF A DROP OF BLOOD
PLATELETS PER CU MM
150,000 TO 300,000 PER CU MM
CLOTTING TIME IN MINUTES
2 TO 6 MINUTES
PERCENT % OF BLOOD THAT IS PLASMA
55 PERCENT
PERCENT % OF PLASMA IS WATER
91 % PERCENT
THE MAIN COMPONENT OF PLASMA IS ?
WATER
THE MINERAL NEEDED TO PRODUCE HEMOGLOBIN IN RBC'S IS ?
IRON
THE PHAGOCYTIC LEUKOCYTES ARE ? & ?
NEUTROPHILS & MONOCYTES
THE SUBSTANCE THAT CAUSES THE BLOOD VESSEL TO CONSTRICT TO SLOW BLOOD LOSS IS ?
SEROTONIN
THE SYSTEM BLOOD IS A PART OF IS THE ?
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
THE TISSUE BLOOD IS CLASSIFIED AS IS ?
CONNECTIVE
THE SUBSTANCE IN THE PLASMA THAT KEEPS TEH BLOOD CONCENTRATED IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN BLOOD VOLUME IS ?
ALBUMIN
THE HORMONE THAT STIMULATES THE BONE MARROW TO PRODUCE RBC'S COMES FROM THE ?
KIDNEYS
THE COLOR OF THE BLOOD DEPENDS ON THE AMOUNT OF ?
OXYGEN ON THE HEMOGLOBIN
THE LEUKOCYTES THAT ARE INCREASED IN ALLERGIC CONDITIONS ARE THE ?
EOSINOPHILS
THE MOST ABUNDANT LEUKOCYTES ARE THE ?
NEUTROPHILS
ERYTHROCYTES CANNOT GO THROUGH CELL DIVISION BECAUSE THEY ?
HAVE NO NUCLEI
THE LAB TEST WHERE BLOOD IS SEPARATED INTO PLASMA AND FORMED ELEMENTS IS CALLED ?
HEMATOCRIT
THE SUBSTANCE IS RELEASED WHEN BODY TISSUES ARE INJURED AND CAUSES INFLAMMATION IS ?
HISTAMINE
IN THE BLOOD CLOTTING CASCADE, PROTHROMBIN CHANGES TO ?
THROMBIN
FIBRINOGEN CHANGES TO FIBRIN WHEN ?
THROMBIN IS PRESENT
THE TYPE OF BLOOD THAT HAS (A ANTIGEN), ANTI-B ANTIBODIES AND PH FACTOR IS ?
A+ (A POSITIVE)
AB- (AB NEGETIVE) BLOOD HAS ?
A AND B ANTIGENS
T CELLS ARE FORMED IN THE ?
THYMUS GLAND
WHEN THE ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEX BECOMES STICKY AND CLUMPS IT IS CALLED ?
AGGLUTINATION
WHEN PROTEINS ATTACH TO THE ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEX AND ENZYMES DRILL A HOLE INTO THE CELL MEMBRANE TO DESTROY THE ANTIGEN, IT IS CALLED ?
COMPLEMENT
THE TYPE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY THAT OCCURS WHEN A DISEASE STIMULATES THE BODY TO MAKE ANTIBODIES AND T CELLS ?
ARTIFICIAL PASSIVE
THE TYPE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY THAT OCCURES WHEN ANTIBODIES ARE RECEIVED FROM THE MOTHER THROUGH THE PLACENTA OR BREAST MILK IS ?
NATURAL PASSIVE
THE TYPE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY THAT OCCURS WHEN IMMUNIZATIONS STIMULATE THE BODY TO MAKE ANTIBODIES ?
ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE
THE TYPE OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY THAT OCCURS WHEN IMMUNE SERUM CONTAINING ANTIBODIES FROM ANOTHER HUMAN OR ANIMAL IS GIVEN IS ?
ARTIFICIAL PASSIVE
WHEN B CELLS ARE ACTIVATED BY AN EXPOSURE TO A FOREIGN ANTIGEN ?
PLASMA CELLS AND MEMORY CELLS ARE PRODUCED
HEMOPOIETIC TISSUE IS TISSUE THAT ?
PRODUCES THE FORMED ELEMENTS OF THE BLOOD
THE COLOR OF BLOOD DEPENDS ON HOW MUCH OXYGEN (02) ON HEMOGLOBIN (HGB)

THE MORE BRIGHTER IT IS
.
ALBUMIN

A SIMPLE PROTEIN FOUND IN BLOOD PLASMA
.
ANTIBODY

A PROTEIN PRODUCED IN RESPONSE TO, AND INTERACTING SPECIFICALLY WITH, AN ANTIGEN
.
ANTIGEN

A SUBSTANCE THAT INDUCES THE FORMATION OF ANTIBODIES
.
B CELL

A LYMPHOCYTE THAT MATURES IN LYMPHOID TISSUE AND IS ACTIVE IN PRODUCING ANTIBODIES; B LYMPHOCYTE
.
COAGULATION

THE PROCESS OF CLOT FORMATION
.
ELECTROLYTE

A SUBSTANCE THAT SEPARATES INTO CHARGED PARTICLES (IONS) IN SOLUTION; A SALT. ALSO REFERS TO IONS IN BODY FLUIDS
.
ERYTHROCYTE

A RED BLOOD CELL
.
FIBRIN

THE PROTEIN THAT FORMS A CLOT IN THE PROCESS OF BLOOD COAGULATION
.
FIBRINOGEN

THE INACTIVE PRECURSOR OF FIBRIN
.
FORMED ELEMENTS

THE CELLULAR COMPONENTS OF BLOOD
.
HEMOGLOBIN

THE IRON-CONTAINING PIGMENT IN RED BLOOD CELLS THAT TRANSPORTS OXYGEN
.
HEMOSTASIS

THE STOPPAGE OF BLEEDING
.
IMMUNITY

THE STATE OF BEING PROTECTED AGAINST A SPECIFIC DISEASE
.
LEUKOCYTE

A WHITE BLOOD CELL
.
LYMPHOCYTE

A LYMPHATIC CELL; A TYPE OF AGRANULAR LEUKOCYTE
.
PHAGOCYTOSIS

THE ENGULFING OF FOREIGN MATERIAL BY WHITE BLOOD CELLS
.
PLASMA

THE LIQUID PORTION OF THE BLOOD
.
PLATELET

A FORMED ELEMENT OF THE BLOOD THAT IS ACTIVE IN HEMOSTASIS; A THROMBOCYTE
.
SERUM

THE FRACTION OF THE PLASMA THAT REMAINS AFTER BLOOD COAGULATION; IT IS THE EQUIVALENT OF PLASMA WITHOUT ITS CLOTTING FACTORS
.
T CELL

A LYMPHOCYTE THAT MATURES IN THE THYMUS GLAND AND ATTACKS FOREIGN CELLS DIRECTLY. T LYMPHOCYTE
.
THROMBOCYTE

A BLOOD PLATELET
.
ALLERGEN

A SUBSTANCE THAT CAUSES AN ALLERGIC RESPONSE.
.
ALLERGY

HYPERSENSITIVITY
.
ANAPHYLACTIC REACTION


AN EXAGGERATED ALLERGIC REACTION TO A FOREIGN SUBSTANCE
.
ANEMIA


A DECREASE IN THE NUMBER OF SIZE OF RED BLOOD CELLS OR THE AMOUNT OF HEMOGLOBIN IN THE BLOOD. MAY RESULT FROM BLOOD LOSS, MALNUTRITION, A HEREDITARY DEFECT, ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, AND OTHER CAUSES.
.
APLASTIC ANEMIA


ANEMIA CAUSED BY BONE MARROW FAILURE RESULTING IN DEFICIENT BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION, ESPECIALLY THAT OF RED CELLS.
.
AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER


A CONDITION IN WHICH THE IMMUNE SYSTEM PRODUCES ANTIBODIES AGAINST AN INDIVIDUAL'S OWN TISSUES
.
ECCHYMOSIS


A COLLECTION OF BLOOD UNDER THE SKIN CAUSED BY LEAKAGE FROM SMALL VESSELS
.
HEMOLYSIS

THE RUPTURE OF RED BLOOD CELLS AND THE RELEASE OF HEMOGLOBIN
.
HEMOPHILIA


A HEREDITARY BLOOD DISEASE CAUSED BY LACK OF CLOTTING FACTOR AND RESULTING IN ABNORMAL BLEEDING
.
HODGKIN'S DISEASE


A NEOPLASTIC DISEASE OF UNKNOWN CAUSE THAT INVOLVES THE LYMPH NODES, SPLEEN, LIVER, AND OTHER TISSUES; CHARACTERIZED BY THE PRESENCE OF GIANT REED-STERNBERG CELLS
.
HYPERSENSITIVITY


AN IMMUNOLOGIC REACTION TO A SUBSTANCE THAT IS HARMLESS TO MOST PEOPLE; ALLERGY
.
IMMUNODEFICIENCY


A CONGENITAL OR ACQUIRED FAILURE IN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO PROTECT AGAINST DISEASE.
.
LEUKEMIA

MALIGNANT OVERGROWTH OF IMMATURE WHITE BLOOD CELLS. MAY BE CHRONIC OR ACUTE; MAY AFFECT BONE MARROW (MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA) OR LYMPHOID TISSUE (LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA)
.
LYMPHADENOPATHY


ANY DISEASE OF THE LYMPH NODES
.
LYMPHOMA

ANY MALIGNANT DISEASE OF LYMPHOID TISSUE, SUCH AS HODGIN'S DISEASE, BURKITT'S DISEASE, AND OTHERS.
.
MULTIPLE MYELOMA

A TUMOR OF THE BLOOD FORMING TISSUE IN BONE MARROW
.
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

ANEMIA CAUSED BY FAILURE OF THE STOMACH TO PRODUCE INTRINSIC FACTOR, A SUBSTANCE NEEDED FOR THE ABSORPTION OF VITAMIN B12
.