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61 Cards in this Set

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How does blood regulate Homeostasis?
Regulation of- Extra Vascular Fluid Volume/ pH/ Body Temp
What makes up plasma?
serum + clotting elements
Clot =
fibrin + platelets
Hematocrit
volume of RBC’s
Buffy coat?
WBC’s + Platelets
What are the functions of blood?
Transport: Nutrients/ Gasses/ Metabolic heat/ Hormones/ Waste
Homeostasis: /Regulation of- Extra Vascular Fluid Volume/ pH/ Body Temp
Protection Against- Infections/ Blood loss
How does blood regulate Homeostasis?
Regulation of- Extra Vascular Fluid Volume/ pH/ Body Temp
Protection Against- Infections/ Blood loss
Hb+O2=
Oxyhemoglobin
Hb+CO2=
Carbaniminohemoglobin
Hb+CO2=
Carboxyhemoglobin
Shape of the RBC
biconcave disks
(which allows a greater surface area for gas exchange)
What is Crenation?
Structural change due to the cells being in a hypertonic solution (forming spikes)
What is Ghosting?
Process where hemoglobin devolves out of the cell due to the cells being in a hypotonic solution
Globin
amino acids
Heme
broken down Ferritin+ Biliruben
What are the classifications of Granules?
Azurophilic (primary, non-specific)
Specific (secondary)
Specific (secondary)
developed after the pri- mary granules (hence secondary) and contain substances peculiar to a specific cell type (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)
Azurophilic (primary, non-specific)
rich in acid phos- phatase and peroxidase.
Agranulocytes
Lymphocytes, Monocytes,
Platelts
Parts of cytoplasm of megakaryocytes
Bone Marrow Functions
Hematopoiesis
Hematoclasia
Immunological
Osseous
Red Bone Marrow
indicates active hematopoiesis. In adults, red marrow
is found in the flat bones of the body.
YellowBone Marrow
Lots of fat/ Mostly after birth
Fat appears in the shafts of long bones about 5-7 years of age
Compartments of Bone Marrow
Hematopoitic Compartment
Vascular compartment
Hematopoitic Compartment
located between the sinusoids and contains:
the cells of the hemopoietic lineage.
connective tissue cells such as mast cells, macrophages, plasma cells,
and reticular cells
Vascular compartment
Nutrient arteries enter bone via nutrient foramina and branch into smaller vessels.
Developmental Phases Of Bone Marrow
Mesoblastic: 1st Trimester
Hepatic: 2nd Trimester
Myeloid: 3rd Trimester
Mesoblastic v
1st Trimester
Hepatic
2nd Trimester
Myeloid
3rd Trimester
Pleurimpotent Hemopoietic Stem cells (PHSC)
CFU-S (CFU-GEMM)
CFU-L
CFU-S (CFU-GEMM) form Stem Cells that differentiate into:
erythrocytes/ granuloctes/ monocytes/ megakaryocytes
CFU-L form Stem Cells that differentiate into:
lymphocytes (T- and B- cells)
Cell Size (range)
Large TO Small
Chromatin pattern (range)
Fine TO Clumped
Nucleoli (range)
Present TO Absent
Nuclear Morphology
The nuclei of developing erythrocytes are large with fine chromatin
Proerythroblast
First recognizable stage of the erythrocyte
Large, spherical, and centrally located Nucleus
proerythroblasts undergo mitoses
Basophilic Erythroblast
cytoplasm is strongly basophilic
Basophilic erythroblasts undergo mitoses
Polychromatiphilic Erythroblast
Smaller cell
cytoplasm is greyish in color due to the production of hemoglobin and
a reduction in the number of ribosomes.
last cell to undergo mitoses
Orthochromatophilic Erythroblast
Cytoplasm is pink, nearing that in color of a mature erythrocyte
Once the nucleus is extruded, the cell is called a reticulocyte
Do not undergo mitoses
Reticulocyte
Usually the first of this lineage that is put into circulation
Immature RBC’s
1% of RBC’s
Myleoblast
Smaller nucleus than Proerythroblast
Promyelocyte
2 Light staingin RNA
hallmark of this stage is the presence of azurophilic granules (lysosomes)
Promyelocytes undergo mitoses
Myelocyte
hallmark of this stage is the production of specific granules
cytoplasm appears pale due to the presence of neutrophilic (specific)
granules that tend to mask the azurophilic granules
NOTE: This is the last stage to undergo mitosis.
Metamyelocyte
identified on the basis of nuclear morphology.
nucleus is elongate and has an indentation on one side that is less than 50%
Band (Stab)
elongated nuclei that assume the shape of a horseshoe
First that can be put into circulation
Neutrophil
2-3 X bigger than RBC
Megakaryoblast
precursor cell to a promegakaryocyte, which in turn becomes a megakaryocyte
Dense Diffuse
1) loose - lymphocytes not closely aggregated
2) dense - closely aggregated lymphocytes
Nodular tissue
Primary Nodules • Only type before birth
Secondary Nodules • Appear after birth
Organs
a. Partially encapsulated (C.T.) b. Totally encapsulated (C.T.
Partial Encapsulated Organ
Pharyngeal tonsil
Palatine tonsils
3) Lingual tonsils
Total Encapsulated Organ
Lymph nodes
2) Spleen
Germinal center
Part of the secondary Node
Contains: i) Mostly B-lymphocytes; some Tʼs
Med. & large lymphocytes
iii) Plasma cells
iv) Macrophages
v) reticular cells
What are Crypts?
Pits in the tonsils
Shallower = Less chance of infection
Parts of the Lymph node
Cortex (outer part of organ) - consists of lymphatic nodules embedded in
diffuse lymphatic tissue.
Medulla - cords of lymphatic tissue in central part of organ.
IN to the Lymph node via 1._____
OUT of the node via 2. ____
1. Afferent lymph vessel
2. Efferent Lymph vessel
Parts of the Spleen
1. Dense C.T. capsule with smooth muscle cells. 2. Trabeculae from the capsule penetrates the organ.
3. Subcapsular tissue referred to as “pulp”; based on the gross, unstained appearance it is divided into:
a. Red Pulp - contains splenic sinuses and cords of lymphatic tissue (Splenic cords, Cords of Bilroth).
b. White Pulp - lymphatic tissue with nodules. 4. Stroma - reticular fibers
Associated cells: macrophages & reticular cells.
Tunica Media
contains 1-2 layers of smooth muscle cells
Thymus:
(action)
Self vs Non-self for White Cells
Blood-Thymic Barrier
prevent the small lymphocytes in the cortex from being sensitized by antigens that could escape from the cortical capillaries.