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76 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 functions of blood?
1)Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
2) Transport hormones, molecules
3) Act as a buffer
4) Produce and transport antibodies
Where are plasma proteins created?
In the liver.
What is the purpose of albumin?
To maintain blood osmotic prssure.
What is the purpose of globulins?
They are antibodies that bind to foreign substences called antigens and form antigen antibody complexes.
What is the purpose of fibrinogen?
It is for clotting.
Name the granular leukocytes.
Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.
Name the agranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes.
What are the 3 kinds of lymphocytes?
T cells, B cells, and natrual killer cells.
What stage of development are reticulocytes? Describe them.
Last stage of development of RBCs. No nucleus, some left over ribosome.
Give the white blood cells in order of most to least abundant.
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils.
What type of granules do eosinophils have?
Major basic protein, eosinophilic cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin.
What sort of granules do basophils have?
Eosinophil chemotactic factor, heparin, histamine, peroxidase.
What are the major functions of neutrophils?
First defense against bacerial infection, active phagocytes.
Give the stages of neutrophils from earliest to latest.
Early neutrophilic myelocyte, late neutrophilic myelocyte, neutophilic metamyelocyte, band cell.
What cell stage is unique to neutrophils?
Band cells.
How many lobes are there in a mature neutrophil?
5 lobes in nucleus.
What are the major funcitons of eosinophils?
Defense against parasites, inhibit histamine releasted by basophils and mast cells, phagocytose antigen-antibody complexes.
What is the major component proteins of eosinophils?
Major basic protein, eosinophilic cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin.
WHat inhibits eosinophil chemoattraction?
Steroids.
How many lobes are in a mature eosinophil?
2
Give the stages of development of a eosinophil from earliest to latest.
Early eosinophilic myelocyte, late eosinophilic myelocyte, eosinophilic myelocyte.
What are the major functions of basophils?
Inflammatory response, allergic response, anti-parasitic.
What 3 major chemicals are released by basophils?
Histamine, heparin, serotonin
What do the granules of basophils appear like?
Black, spikey looking and less dense than eosinophils.
What is the major function of monocytes?
Precursor to macrophages, phagocytosis, inflmmatory response, antigen presentation.
Give 4 examples of monocyte-macrophage systems.
Kupffer cells of liver
Microglia of CNS
Antigen presenting cells
Osteclasts of bone
How many lobes to megakaryocytes have?
COmplex multilobed nucleus.
What type of granules do megakaryocytes have?
Azurophilic granules.
What are the major funcitons of platelets? (3)
Blood clotting, vascular repair, chemotaxis for neutrophils and basophils.
What are the hyalomere of plaelets?
series of microtubes that contract to provide mode of movement and help to release components.
What do granulemeres contain in platelets?
3 kinds of granules.
Where are surface opening tubules and dense tubular system located?
Within the hyalomere.
What is the purpose of surface opening tubules on platelets?
Exchange/release.
What is the purpose of dense tubular system on platelets?
Squestering calcium.
Describe the function of T-cells. How long do they live?
T-lymphocytes live a long life and are for cell mediated immunity.
Describe the function of B-cells. What do they mediate and how long do they live?
They mediate homoral immunity and have a variable life span.
Describe lymphocyte appearance.
Small amout of cytoplasm, large nucleus.
Where is the matoryity of hemopoiesis during the prenatal moths?
Yolksac, liver, spleen and increasingly the bone marrow.
Describe the lining of hemopoetic compartments.
They are lined by endothelial cells and adventitial cells. They are connected by tight junctions and loose nonjunctional areas where cells get into sinuses.
What do adventitial cells look like in bone marrow?
Large cells filled with fat.
Where are megakaryocytes always located next to?
A sinus.
What two things decrease in stem cells and progenitor cells during differentiation?
Potentiality and self-renewing capacity.
Two things remain constant through stem cells ,progenitor cells and precursor cells?
Mitotic activity and influence of growth factors.
Describe the stages of erythropoesis from earliest to latest.
Proerythroblast, basophilic erythroblast, polychromatophilic erythroblast, orthochromatophilic erythroblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte.
How are early neutrophilic myelocytes, early basophilic myelocytes, early eosinophilic myelocytes created?
From myeloblasts which make promyelocytes which produce the 3 kinds of cell precursors.
Describe myeloblasts.
2 nuclei, large cell, hard to identify.
What happens during hte promyelocyte stage?
Azurophilic granules develop.
What happens during the early eosinophilic myocyte stage?
Secondary specific granules develop.
When does the nucleus change shape during granulopoiesis?
All stages after the early stage.
At what stage can erythrocyte precursors no longer divide?
At the orthochromatophilic stage.
What is the last stage erythrocyte precursors can diviede?
Polychromatophilic erythroblast stage.
What happens as differntiation occurs to RBCs?
RNA production is reduced and Hemoglobin production is increased.
What produces erythropoietin?
The kidneys in response to O2 stess.
When dos protein synthesis most occur (2) during erythropoeisis?
Proerythroblast and basophilic erythroblast stages.
WHen does the beginning of hemoglobin synthesis occur?
At the polychromatophilic ertyhroblast stage.
When in erythropoeisis does the nucleus condense?
During the orthochromatophilic erythoblast stage.
Describe promyelocytes and myelocytes.
2 nucleoli, azurophilic lysozymes.
What is the last stage that myelocytes can divide?
During the myelocyte stage?
What is the first stage where myelocytes can no longer divide?
During the metamylocyte stage.
What signals that mitosis is over in metamylocytes?
The nucleus movs to the side and general granules specific for the cell type develop.
Describe promyelocytes.
Oval nucleus with nucleoli, basophilic cytoplasm, azurophilic granules.
When do specific granules develop?
During the neutrophil (eosin, baso) myelocyte stage.
When does the nucleus change shape?
During the neutro (eosin, baso) phil meta myalocyte stage.
What are the stages in monopoiesis?
Monoblast, promonocyte, monocyte.
Describe promonocytes.
Well developed golgi, abundant RER, mitochondria and lysosomes.
What do monocytes differentiate into?
Macrophages.
What are the stages of lymphopoeisis?
Lymphoblast, prolymphocyte (T-cell, B-cell progenitors)
What is leukemia?
Malignant proliferation of white cell precursors in bone marrow.
What makes chronic leukemia unique?
Slowly progressive and proliferating cells are partly or completely differntiated (myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band cell etc.)
What characterizes accute leukemia?
Rapidly progressive, where proliferating cells are virtually undifferentiated precursor cells (lymphoblasts, etc.)
Describe the nucleus of a monocyte.
Bilobed nucleous that folds over on its self (2 nucleoli)
Describe the appearance of granules in eosinophils.
Red, uniform specific granules.
Describe the granules in basophils.
Nonuniform granules, larger than eosinophils.
What do demarkation channels do in megakaryocytes?
Push cytosol out.
What is thrombocytopenia?
Severe reduction in number of circulating plateles.
What characterizes thromobcytopenia?
Petichiae (small red spots), and Ecchymoses (large bruises)