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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
blood is a type of ______ tissue
connective
what does the blood transport throughout the body, and what does it help maintain?
blood transports SUBSTANCES throughout the body, it helps MAINTAIN A STABLE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.
what are the 4 types of blood?
RBC, WBC, Platelets, and Plasma
a blood hematocrit (ratio of RBC to total volume) is normally __% cells and __% plasma.
45% and 55%
______ is a mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes
PLASMA
red blood cells are known as as _______
erythrocytes
RBC are bioconcave disks that contain one-third of _____-____ ____ by volume
one-third hemoglobin
when oxygen combines with hemoglobin bright red ________ results
oxyhemoglobin
What does hemoglobin consists of?
two alpha and two beta polypeptide chains, and four heme groups with Fe (iron) inside heme groups.
deoxygenated blood is darker and is known as _________
deoxyhemoglobin
the number of RBC is a measure of the blood's _____-______ capacity.
oxygen-carrying
In the embryo and fetus RBC production occurs where?
in the yolk sac, liver, and spleen
After birth where does RBC production occur?
Red bone marrow
what is the average life span of RBC?
120 days
the total number of RBC remains relatively constant due to _____ ______ _____
negative feedback mechanism
which hormone is utilized in the RBC and is released from the kidneys and liver in response to the detection of low oxygen levels.
erythropoietin
erythropoietin hormone stimulates what?
red bone marrow
enhanced erythropoiesis increases what?
RBC count
low oxygen levels in the blood stimulate _____ to produce erythropoietin
kidneys
after erythropoietin promotes erythropoiesis in red bone marrow what happens next?
new erythrocytes enter the bloodstream: function about 120 days.
what happens to the aged and damaged RBC?
they are engulfed by macrophages of liver, spleen, and bone marrow; the hemoglobin is broken down.
raw materials are made available in the blood for ______ ______
erythrocyte synthesis
what is hemoglobin broken down to?
heme (iron stored as ferritin, hemosiderin) (bilirubin) and Globin (amino acids)
____ is bound to transferrin and released to blood from liver as needed for erythropoiesis
Iron
_____ is picked up from the blood by liver, secreted into intesetine in bile, metabolized to stercobilin by bacteria, and excreted in feces
Bilirubin
______ and _____ are needed for DNA synthesis, so they are necessary for the reproduction of all body cells, especially in hematopoietic tissue
Vtiamin B12 and Folic Acid
____ is needed for hemoglobin synthesis
iron
A deficiency RBC or quantity of hemoglobin results in _____
anemia
_____ in the liver and spleen phagocytize damaged RBC
Macrophages
Heme is decomposed to _____ which is stored and recycled
iron
_____ and ____ in heme is what is excreted in bile
biliverdin and bilirubin
White Blood Cells are also known as ______
leukocytes
WBC main function is what?
help defend the body against disease.
WBC are formed from ______
hemocytoblasts
how do you distinguish the five types of WBC that are circulating in the blood?
size, granular appearance of the cytoplasm, shape of the nucleus, and staining characteristics.
What are the FIVE types of WBC?
1. Granular Neutrophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils
4. Agranular monocytes
5. Lymphocytes
____ is when oxygen decreases in cells
hypoxia
_____ is when oxygen becomes to great in the cells.
synosis
________ is when CO2 diffuses out of the cell membrane and hooks up with hemoglobin thru capillaries, this lowers hemoglobins affinity for oxygen
carbaminohemoglobin
what tells our body to produce more RBC?
blood circulating through the KIDNEY, it reads the lack of oxygen, triggers a hormone response called erythropoietin and stimulate erythropoiesis and produces more RBC
____when the about of Iron is increased by 10x and becomes deadly to the cells
hemochromatosis
what protein allows the folding of RBC?
spectrin
WBC production is stimulated by ______ and _____
interleukins and colony stimulating factor
where are WBC formed?
Hemocytoblasts (stem cells)
of the five types of WBC which are granular sites?
neutrophile, basophils, and eosinophils
of the five type of WBC which have NO GRANULES?
a-granular monocytes, and lymphocytes
what are the formed element(s) of blood?
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
what are the liquid element(s) of blood?
plasma
____ have a red-staining fine cytoplasmic granules and a multi-lobed nucleus, they comprise 54%-62% of leukocytes
Neutrophils
______ is the chief phagocytic leukocyte (where its chews up bacteria)
neutrophils
______ have a coarse granules that stain deep red, a bi-lobed nucleus, and make up only 1-3% of circulating leukocytes.
Eosinophils
_______ in leukocytes helps destroy antigen antibody processes (wrong blood type_
Eosinophils
______ have fewer granules that stain blue; they account for fewer than 1% of leukocytes
Basophils
____ release histodine when there is damage causing inflammation in leukocytes
Basophils
____ is an anti-clotting agent
Heparin
_______ are the largest blood cells, have a variably-shaped nuclei, and make up 3-9% of circulating leukocytes
Monocytes
______ become macrophages in the body (leukocytes
Monocytes
______ are long-lived, have a large, round nucleus, and account for 25-33% of circulating leukocytes.
lymphocytes
_____ are the major player of immunity with a huge nucleus. leukocytes
lymphocytes
_____ leave blood stream go into interstitial fluid will become plasma cells. leukocytes
lymphocytes
____ become lymph node tissue, which mature into lymph node organs
lymphocytes
_____ is the passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typical accompanying inflammation
diapedesis
____ over-abundance of WBC
leukocytsis
____ low WBC count, included in AIDS
leukopenia
____ is a digestive enzyme that helps chew up
lysosome
Leukocytes can squeeze between cells lining walls of blood vessels by _____ and attack ___ and debris
diapedesis; bacteria
_____ over-growth of WBC, known as cancer of the blood
leukemia
__a___ and __b___ are phagocytic in WBC with ___b___ engulfing the larger particles.
(a) neutrophils and (b) monocytes
_____ moderate allergic reactions as well as defend against parasitic infections
Eosinophils
______ migarte to damaged tissues and release histamine to promote inflammation and heparin to inhibit blood clotting
Basophils
_____ are major players in specific immune reactions and some produce antibodies
Lymphocytes
a _____ WBC count can help pinpoint nature of the illness, indicating whether it is caused by bacteria or viruses.
differential
a differential WBC count lists the percentages of the types of _____ in a blood sample
leukocytes
_____ occurs after an infection when excess numbers of leukocytes are present
leukocytosis
all leukocytes have a life span of how many days? expect?
1-8 days; expect lymphocytes-1year
blood platelets are fragments of _______
megakaryocytes
_____ help repair damaged blood vessels by adhering to their broken edges
platelets
Platelet formation is controlled by ______ hormone
thrombopoietin
____ is the clear, straw-colored fluid portion of the blood.
Plasma
Plasma is mostly ___ but contains a variety of ____
water; substances
plasma functions to transport ___ and ____, regulate fluid and ____ balance, and maintain a favorable __.
nutrients and gases; electrolyte balance; pH
the ____ ____ are the most abundant dissolved substances in the plasma
plasma protein
plasma proteins are NOT used for ____
energy
what are the three groups of plasma protein?
1. albumins
2. globulins
3. fibrinogen
the ____ helps maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood and account for 60% of the plasma proteins.
albumins
the __a__, comprising 36% of plasma proteins, are designated are alpa, beta, and gamma _a_
globulins
___ and ____ globulins function in transporting lipids and fat-soluble vitamins
alpha and beta
____ ____ are a type of antibody (in the liver and lymph node tissues)
gamma globulins
____ (4%) plays a primary role in blood coagulation
Fibrinogen
the most important blood gases are ____ and ______
oxygen and carbon dioxide
the plasma nutrients include what?
amino acids, monosaccharides, nucleotides and lipids.
What do plasma nutrient include?
amino acids, monosaccharides, nucleotides, and lipids
Since lipids are not soluble in the water of the plasma, they are surrounded by protein molecules for transport through the bloodstream as _______
lipoproteins
Lipoproteins are classified on what basis?
their densities
The are the types of lipoproteins?
HDL, LDL, VLDL, and chylomicrons
____ and ____ ____ are the byproducts of protein and nucleic acid catabolism
Urea and uric acid
______ nitrogenous substances generally include amino acids, urea, and uric acid
nonprotein
_____ _______ are absorbed by the intestine or are by-products of cellular metabolism.
plasma electrolytes
what do plasma electrolytes include?
sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, and sulfate ions
what are the plasma electrolyte ions important in maintaining?
osmotic pressure and pH of the plasma.
_______ refers to the stoppage of bleeding.
Hemostasis
Following injury to a vessel, three steps occur in hemostasis, what are they?
1. Blood vessel spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Blood coagulation
What happens in a Blood Vessel Spasm? And what step is this in hemostasis?
1. Cutting a blood vessel causes the muscle in its wall to contract in a reflex, or engage in a VASOSPASM
2. This reflex lasts only a few minutes, but it lasts long enough to initiate the second and third steps of hemostasis.

STEP 1
What happens in Platelet Plug Formation? What step is this is hemostasis?
1. Platelets stick to the exposed edges of damaged blood vessels, forming a net with spiny processes protruding from their membranes.

STEP 2
What is a platelet plug most effective on?
a small vessel
What is the most effective means of hemostasis?
blood coagulation
what process in hemostasis is very complex and uses clotting factors?
blood coagulation
Damaged tissues release a chemical called tissue _______, which activates the first in a series of factors leading to the production of ______ ______
THROMBOPLASTIN
PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR.
______ ______ converts ______ in the plasma into thrombin. This in turn, catalyzes a reaction that converts fibrinogen into ____.
PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR
PROTHROMBIN

FIBRIN
The major event in blood clot formation is the conversion of soluble _____ into net like insoluble ____ causing the blood cells to catch.
FIBRINOGEN; FIBRIN
The amount of prothrombin activator formed is______ to the amount of tissue damage.
proportional
Once a blod clot forms, it promotes still more clotting through a _____ ______ system
positive feedback
After a clot forms, ______ invade the area and produce _____ throughout the clots.
fibroblasts; fibrers
A clot forms abnormally in a vessel it is known as? if it dislodges, it is known as?
thrombus; embolus
Clumping of red blood cells following transfusion is called what?
agglutination
_______ is due to the interaction of proteins on the surfaces of RBC (antigens) with certain antibodies carried in the plasma
agglutination
What groups of RBC produce only a few of the antigens in transfusion reactions?
ABO group and Rh group
Type A blood has what antigens on RBC and what antibodies in the plasma?
A antigens and anti-B antibodies
Type B blood has what antigens on RBC and what antibodies in the plasma?
B antigens and anti-A antibodies
Type AB blood has what antigens on RBC and what antibodies in the plasma?
has both A and B antigens, nut no antibodies in the plasma
Type O blood has what antigens on RBC and what antibodies in the plasma?
neither antigen, but both types of antibodies in the plasma
______ ______reactions are avoided by preventing the mixing of blood that contains matching antigens and antibodies.
Adverse transfusion
Adverse reactions are due to the ______ to red blood cells
agglutination