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28 Cards in this Set

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Plasma Proteins
1. Albumin
2. Globulins
3. Fibrinogen
4. Complement Proteins
Albumin
-synthesized in the liver
-maintains osmotic pressure
-carrier for lipophilic substances
Globulins
-alpha, beta, gamma
-gamma-globulins include Abs (synthesized by plasma cells)
-non-immune globulins synthesized in the liver
Fibrinogen
-synthesized in the liver
-essential for blood clotting
-converted by blood-borne enzymes into fibrin
Blood Elements
-Erythrocytes
-reticulocytes (imm. RBC)
-Leukocytes
-granulocytes
-neutrophils,
eosinophils, basophiles
-platelets = thrombocytes
Erythrocytes
-anucleate
-function in gas exchange
-hemoglobin- o binding
-no cellular organelles
Mature red blood cells
-hemoglobin
-glycolytic enzymes
-pm: rich in glycocalyx
-Ags for A, B, O blood type
-cytoskeletin: spectrin, actin, ankyrin, trompomyosin
-lifespan = 120 days
spectrin
present in cytoskeleton of mature red blood cells, and maintains biconcave shape
Anisocytosis
-RBCs vary in size
-macrocytosis: abnormally large RBC
-microcytosis: abnormally small RBC
Leukocytes
-WBCs
-nucleated, larger than RBC
-diapesis: leave capillaries by passing thru endothelial cells
-cellular and humoral defense
Lymphocytes
-assist in inactivation of foreign substances
-never phagocytic
-activated by Ags:
B lymphocytes
T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes
-differentiate into plasma cells
-plasma cells secrete antibodies
-humeral immunity
T lymphocytes
-predominant lymphocyte
-cell mediated immunity
Killer T Cells- graft rejection
Helper T cells
Supressor T cells
Null cells
-no T or B cell surface marker
-may be stem cells
Monocytes
-large, blue-gray cytoplasm and reddish, purple, kidney shaped nucleus
-azurophilic granules
-only in blood
-precursors of macrophages, become phagocytic after leaving circulation
Granulocytes
-possess two types of granules:
1. azurophilic= lysosomes
2. specific granules
-typically have segmented nuclei
Neutrophil
-most abundant leukocyte
-1st line of defense against bacteria
-become phagocytes
Eosinophils
-allergic response and parasitic infection
-leave blood by diapedsis
-nuclei usually have 2 lobes
-Major Basic Protein (MBP)- lysosomal enzymes
Basophils
-least numerous WBC
-limited amoeboid movement, limited phagocytosis
-site of inflammation
-nuclei have 3 lobes
-specific granules (heparin and histamine)
Platelets (thrombocytes)
-smallest formed element in the blood
-8 day life span
-blood clotting
-anucleate
-hyalomere, granulomere
granules contain seratonin
Blood islands
form in extraembryonic mesoderm of the yolk sac in the 3rd week
-blood and endothelial cells develop from mesenchymal cells in the blood islands
2nd month of development
hematopoiesis shifts to liver, spleen and thymus
liver
-produces:
-granulocytes
-platelets
-nucleated RBCs
-anucleate RBCs
Spleen
Produces:
-erythrocytes and a small number of granulocytes
Thymus
produces lymphocytes
3rd trimetster
hematopoiesis shifts to the bone marrow
2 types of bone marrow
1. red marrow (active in hematopoiesis)
-adult: vertebral bodies, ribs, sternum, pelvic ilia, proximal humerus and proximal tibia
2. yellow marrow- fat laden
Erythropoiesis: Red Blood Cell Formation
Developmental stages
proethrythroblast
basophilic eythroblast
polychromatic eyrthroblast
orthochrmoatic eyrthroblast
reticulocyte
eyrthrocyte