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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are white blood cells
What are red blood cells?
What are platelets?
How many erythrocytes are in a microliter of blood?
5 million
How many thrombocytes are in a microliter of blood?
How many leukocytes are in a microliter of blood?
White blood cells and platelets together make up what percentage of blood?
Leukocytes are composed of what types of cells?
Granulocytes (65%)
Lymphocytes (30%)
Monocytes (5%)

Of granulocytes - 95% neutrophils, 4% eosinophils, 1% basophils
Monocytes and granulocytes are produced where?
Formed in bone marrow,
stored in bone marrow,
released when certain factors are produced
Lymphocytes and plasma cells are produced where?
Produced in lymphogenous tissue,
stored in lymphoid tissue
hemopoitic stem cell
What is the makeup of blood?
55% plasma (which is 90% water)
45% of formed elements (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes)
Sickle cell anemia
glutamine to valine at position 6 of polypeptide chain of hemoglobin. Causes marked decrease in flexibility of affected RBCs
How long do erythrocites live?
120 days
What organs remove RBCs at the end of their lifespan?
Liver & spleen
In what way are RBCs "highly specialized"?
Lose nucleus and organelles
hormone produced by kidney when blood oxygen levels decline, to stimulate stem cell differentiation into RBCs
What are the characteristics of neutrophils?
Most abundant of leukocytes (granulocytes)
Distinguished by multi-lobed nuclei
Twice the size of RBCs
Usually the first WBCs to arrive on scene of infection
Immediately phagocytize microorganisms
When lysosomes are used up, neutrophil dies and becomes part of pus
What is a pseudopod?
finger-like projection on a neutrophil indicating that it is following an antigen
What are the characteristics of eosinophils?
React to acid dyes
Modulate inflammatory and allergic response
Kill parasites
Limited capacity to phagocytize bacteria
Eosinophils contain proteins cytotoxic for parasites, and are also important for asthmatic symptoms
What are the characteristics of basophils?
Smallest of granulocytes
Contain histamine and herapin (anti-coagulant)
Have IgE receptors for activation in allergic reactions, when they degranulate and rupture, causing symptoms associated w/ allergic rxn
What are the characteristics of monocytes?
Slightly larger than neutrophils
U- or kidney-shapped nuclei
Use amoeboid motion to chase antigens
Monocytes in connective tissue differentiate into macrophates, which remain stationary
What type of macrophages (differentiated monocytes) dwell in skin, lungs, liver, brain, and bone?
histocytes, aveolar macrophages, Kupffer cells, microglia, and osteoclasts
How do neutrophils and macrophages interact during inflammation?
Neutrophils release chemicals to attract macrophages (chemotaxis)
What are the characteristics of lymphocytes?
2nd most abundant WBC
Most exist in lymphoid organs
Attack microbial intruders
Not phagocytic
Divided into B and T lymphocytes
What are the characteristics of T lymphocytes?
Attack foreign cells directly
Cellular immunity
What are the characteristics of B lymphocytes?
When activated transform into plasma cells, which synthesize and release antibodies
Marks foreign cells for destruction by macrophages
Homeostasis of leukocytes
What is characteristic of leukemia?
Cancer of WBCs
Leukocytes divide uncontrollably in bone marrow
Leads to decline in RBC production and anemia
Leads to decline in platelet production, decreases clotting and increases internal bleeding
Leukemia WBCs usually undifferentiated, uncapable of fighting infection
Treated by irradiating bone marrow
Now 3 in 4 kids can survive, better than 1 in 4 only 20 years ago
Infectious Mononucleosis
'Mono' or 'Kissing disease'
Virus transmitted by saliva
Virus infects lymphocytes
Causes fatigue, aches, sore throats, low-grade fever
Rest and liquids while body fights virus
What are the characteristics of platelets?
Formed by fragmentation of huge megakaryocytes
Lack nuclei and organelles
Lifespan of 8-12 days
Dead platelets removed by macrophages
Glycoproteins on surface of cell membrane cause it to adhere to injured areas of vessels (endothelial or collagen)
Phospholipids play activating role in blood clotting
What are the (6) active factors contained in the cytoplams of platelets, and what do they do?
(1) Actin and myosin molecules - cause contraction
(2) Residuals of ER and Golgi - synthesize enzymes and store Ca
(3) Mitochondrial and enzyme systems - form ATP and ADP
(4) Enzyme systems that synthesize prostaglandins (hormones)
(5) Fibrin-stabilizing factor
(6) Growth factor - stimulate repair to damaged vessels
How much plasma is in the body?
3 L
How much interstitial fluid is in the body?
11 L
How much intracellular fluid is in the body?
28 L
Intracellular cations
Mostly K+
Intracellular anions
Mostly PO4- and protein
Extracellular cations
Mostly Na+
Extracellular anions
Mostly Cl- and HCO3-
Major non-electrolytes of the plasma in descending order:
Neutral fat
Lactic acid
Net diffusion of water from a region of high water concentration to regions of low water concentration
Osmotic pressure is directly proportional to what?
Concentration of osmotically active particles in solution
Solution has approximately the same osmolarity as the cell, so the cell will not lose or gain water. In the human body, approximately 280 mOsm/L
Solution has higher concentration of solute than cell, causing cell to shrink
Solution has lower concentration of solute than cell, causing cell to swell
Cause of intermittency of blood flow from capillaries to tissues. Intermittent contraction of metarterioles and precapillary sphincters
Interstitial fluid
extracellular fluid
What are the major solid structures of the interstitium?
(1) Collagen fiber bundles
(2) Proteoglycan filaments which traps most of fluid. This area is called the tissue gel. Liquids mainly diffuse through gel rather than flow.
What are the four forces operating on the capillary membrane?
(1) capillary pressure
(2) interstitial fluid pressure
(3) plasma colloid osmotic pressure
(4) intersitital fluid colloid osmotic pressure
Forces 3 and 4 are greater than 1 and 2
What system allows movement of liquids from interstitium into blood?
Lymphatic system. It also allows for transport of proteins and large particles away from tissue
The lymphatic system is functionally related to what two systems?
circulatory system and immune system
How is lymph pumped out of lungs and extremities below the heart, where gravity is not the primary motive force?
Lungs - breathing
Extremities - walking
Lymphatic organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils. They function primarily in immune protection. A lymph node consists of a network of fibers that filter out bacteria, viruses, and cellular debris from lymph. Macrophages line lymphoid channels.
What are the main events in clotting (4)
(1) vascular constriction
(2) formation of the platelet plug
(3) blood coagulation of the ruptured vessel
(4) fibrous organization or dissolution of the blood clot
Mechanism of blood coagulation
Prothrombin converted to Thrombin
Thrombin converts Fibrogin to Fibrogin monomers which form Fibrin fibers. Cross-linking of Fibrin fibers (stabilized by Thrombin).
Extrinsic pathway
Tissue trauma activates Tissue factor, which converts factor VII to VIIa. Factor VIIa and Ca activate factor X, which activates V, which activates Prothrombin activator, which activates prothrombin (IIa)
This causes coagulation to begin.
Intrinsic pathway
Blood trauma or contact w/ collagen activates factor XII, which activates factor XI, which activates factor IX, which activates, through factor VIII, factor X, which activates prothrombin activator.
Residual thrombin from the end of pathway also activates some intermediates.
Intravascular coagulants:
endothelial surface factors
Smooth surface
Glycocalyx prevents binding of clot factors & platelets
Thrombomodulin (degrades factors V and VIII)
Intravascular coagulants:
Fibrin and antithrombin III
85% of thrombin binds to fibrin and 15% to antithrombin III
tissue plasminogin activator, turns plasminogin to plasmin
Degrades fibrin in clots. Very selectively produced at site of need.
Degrades plasmin when it is no longer needed.
Conditions that cause excessive bleeding:
Vitamin K deficiency
Hemophelia (X-linked recessive)
freely-floating clot
abnormal clot in blood vessel
Anticoagulants for clinical use:
Siliconized containers, citrate, oxaloate prevent coagulation outside of body
What are the dimensions of RBCs
Biconcave discs about 7.8 um across, 2.5 um at thickest point and <1 um at thinnest (center).
Sites of RBC production through life cycle:
First few weeks - yolk sac
middle trimester - liver
last month of gestation - bone marrow
age 20 - vertebra, sternum, ribs, illia
What is required for maturation of RBCs
Folic acid and vitamin B12
pernicious anemia
RBC maturation failure due to vitamin deficiency
intrinsic factor (stomach)
Binds to vitamin B12 to protect it from digestion by pancreatic enzymes, increase absorption in intestines
Hemoglobin A contains:
2 alpha and 2 beta chains
Each chain contains 2 heme
One heme composed of protoprophyrin IX and Fe
Total quantity of iron in body:
4-5 grams, 65% in hemoglobin, 15-30% in reticuloendothelial system and liver as ferritin
transport and storage of iron
see diagram on page 26 of handout
cellular mechanism of iron absorption
heme is absorbed in brush border, converted to Fe by Heme oxidase, mobile-ferrin transfers Fe to Transferrin receptor, which couples Fe with transferrin, producing new heme
Regulation of iron absorption (preventing excess)
Some iron binds irreversible to ferritin, where it is lost into intestinal lumen and excreted.
Increase in red blood cell production (abnormal), aka erythremia
Megaloblastic anemia
pernicious anemia, caused by lack of intrinsic factor.
hemolytic anemias
sickle cell, erythroblastosis fetalis