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93 Cards in this Set

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What is thrombopoiesis?
Platelet formation
Where does thrombopoiesis take place?
Red bone marrow
How do platelets form?
-form from megakaryocytes
-fragments break off and enter circulatory system as a platelet
-results in cell fragments with cytoplasm and no nucleus
What allows for attachment of platelets?
-surface is covered with proteins including glycoproteins
What is the life span of platelets?
5-9 days
What is the function of platelets?
-only function in blood clotting
-send chemical signals to other platelets
-physically block a wound
Why don't leukocytes have a pigment?
there is no hemoglobin so they are colorless
Where do leukocytes function?
mainly in the tissues and out of circulatory system
How do leukocytes move?
ameobic movement- can move on own
What is diapedsis?
-movement by squeezing between or through cells
What is chemotaxic?
when something is attracted to chemical signals produced by damaged tissue and move toward damaged area
What is pus?
accumulation of dead WBCs, bacteria, and fluid
What are the 5 types of leukocytes?
-neutraphils
-eosinophils
-basophils
-leukocytes
-monocytes
What are the 3 granular types of leukocytes?
-neutraphils
-eosinophils
-basophils
What are the 2 agranular types of leukocytes?
-monocytes
-leukocytes
What is a neutraphil?
-most common WBC
-60-70% of WBC
-stain acidic and basic
-have lobed nucleus
-very phagocytic
What do neutraphils do?
-secrete lysozymes that destroy bacteria
What is an eosinophil?
-granules stain red
-2-4% of WBCs
-increases levels in people with allergies
-attack some parasitic worms
What do eosinophils do?
-release enzymes that destroy histamines to decrease inflammatory response
escoger
to choose, to select

choisir
What do basophils do?
-secrete histamine and heparin to increase inflammation
-this release can lead to aniphylactic shock
What is a lymphocyte?
-smallest WBC
-20-25% of WBC
-originate in red bone marrow then migrate to lymphatic tissues
What do lymphocytes do?
-produce clones of themselves
-most produced in lymphatic tissue not in red bone marrow
-found in tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus
What are the 2 types of lymphocytes?
-b-cells
-t-cells
What do b-cells do?
produce antibodies
What do t-cells do?
protect from viruses and tumors

-cause organ transplant rejection- destroyed by HIV virus
What is a monocyte?
-largest WBC
-3-8% of WBC
-enter into tissue and convert to macrophage
-numbers increase in infection
What do monocytes phagocytize?
anything abnormal
What is leukopoiesis?
formation of leukocytes
-occurs mainly in red bone marrow except lymphocytes mainly in lymphatic tissues
calzar
to shoe, to wear (shoes), to put on (shoes)

chausser
What occurs in the platelet adhesion?
-platelet bind to collagen fibers with protein that forms a bridge
-bridge formed between platelet and collagen fiber
What is the protein used to make the bridges in the platelet adhesion?
VonWillebrand factor
What occurs in the platelet activation?
-binding of platelet to collagen fiber activates platelet and plate release reaction
-platelet releases ADP and thromboxane (activate other platelets)
Is platelet activation a negative feedback or positive feedback?
positive feedback
What occurs in platelet plug formation?
-activated platelets change shape and express a fibrogen receptor on surface
-fibrogen forms bridges between platelets forming plug
What occurs in coagulation activation?
-activated platelets express the phospholipids: Platelet Factor III and Coagulation Factor V
What are the physical characteristics of clot formation?
a.wound that is bleeding freely
b.blood viscosity increases and blood gels
c.interwoven threads of fibrin form
d.platelet plug forms between threads
What happens in stage 1 of chemical steps of clot formation?
-activated Factor X stimulates formation of the enzyme prothrombinase
What happens in stage 2 of the chemical steps of clot formation?
-Prothrombinase converts the protein prothrombin to enzyme thrombin
What happens in stage 3 of the chemical steps of clot formation?
enzyme thrombin converts the plasma protein fibrogen into fibrin
-fibrin threads form mesh of clot
Why is clot formation a complex process?
- circulate inactive, activated by chemical signals (ex.thrombin)
-prevents intravascular clotting
What are the 2 pathways for coagulation?
-extrinsic
-intrinsic
What happens during the extrinsic pathway from coagulation?
-begins with chemical signals outside blood
-damaged tissues will release thromboplastin
What does thromboplastin-factor VII activate in the extrinsic pathway?
Factor X of common pathway
What does thromboplastin bind to in the extrinsic pathway?
-binds with factor VII and forms thromboplastin-factor III complex
What is thromboplastin also known as?
-Factor III or tissue factor
What happens in the intrinsic pathway of the coagulation pathway?
-begins with chemical signals inside the blood
-exposed collagen fibers from damaged blood vessels activates a cascade of coag factors
What does the cascade of coag factors lead to in the intrinsic pathway?
-activation of factor X in a common pathway
-thromboplastin factor VII complex can activate intrinsic pathway at factor IX
What happens in the clot formation regulation?
-regulated to prevent intravascular clots
-blood has anticoagulations to prevent clotting
What happens at site of damaged tissue to regulate clotting?
-activates coagulants over power coag factor
-increase concentration of activated coag factors overcome ability of anti-coags to prevent clotting
What are the 3 types of anticoagulants?
1.antithtombin
2.heparin
3.prostacyclin
What is antithrombin?
a plasma protein that inactivates thrombin
What does heparin do?
enhances the antithrombin action, increases rate of thrombin in activation
What does prostacyclin do?
inhibits coag factor release from platelets and increase of vasodialation
How does clot contraction occur?
Platelets have myosin and actin which allows contraction
-platelets attatch to fibrinogen by extensions that have myosin and actin
What happens when the extensions of platelets contracts?
-it condenses the clot and pulls the edge of the blood vessels together.
-fibroblasts enter and repair the damaged connective tissue
What happens during clot dissolution?
-an enzyme called plasmin dissolves fibrin
-plasmin circulates as inactive plasmogen
-activated after clot formation by thrombin
What are the times for coagulation?
Flow cessation (geling)= 1-4 mins

Coag time= up to 4-6 minutes
What is hemophilia?
x linked trait

mostly occurs in males

slow or no coagulation
What are the 2 types of hemophilia?
1. Classic Hemophilia

2. Deficient Hemophilia
What is classic hemophilia?
a person that does not have coag factor VIII

-1 in 10,000 in male births
What is deficient hemophilia?
a person that is deficient in coag factor IX

-1 in 100,000 in male births
What is thrombus?
- a clot in a blood vessel that is stationary

-blocks blood vessels and can lead to death
What is embolus?
-a dislodged thrombus
-a clot that is moving

-blocks blood vessels and can lead to death
What is polycythemia?
high red blood cell count
Normal: live at high altitudes
Abnormal:anything that will lower O2% in body
-high viscosity of blood and blood volume
What is anemia?
-decrease in hemoglobin
-can have decrease RBC count and normal HGB levels
-or normal RBC count and decreased HGB levels
What is iron deficiency?
-decrease in iron intake and decrease in HGB production
What is hemorrhagic?
-blood cell loss (bleeding)
-4 days to replace RBCs
-plasma replaced quickly
What is hemolytic?
-blood cells rupture or are destroyed
What is aplastic?
-bone marrow damage and decrease in RBCs production
-Chemotherapy
What is pernicious?
-B12 deficiency and decrease in RBCs production
What is sickle cell anemia?
-a genetic disorder affects mostly African and Mediterranean decent
-block blood vessels because they stick together
-produce an abnormal HGB
Can people with sickle cell anemia get malaria?
NO
How long do people usually live with sickle cell anemia?
usually fatal by 30 years of age
What is leukocytosis?
-increase in WBCs
-greater WBCs then 10,000/mm3
-Cause: infection, pregnancy, leukemia (could be 250,000/mm3)
What is leukopenia?
-decrease in WBCs
-less than 5,000/mm3
-Cause: malnutrition, influenza
What is thrombocytopoenia?
-decrease in platelet count
-problem clotting blood
What is thrombocytosis?
-increase in platelet cound
-spontaneous blood clotting
What is jaundice?
-yellowing of skin and sclera
-caused by bilirubin pigment build up on body
What is the cardiovascular system?
-a series of interconnected tubes or channels for the purpose of circulating a fluid with a pump
What organs are involved in the cardiovascular system?
-blood vessesls
-sinusoids
-blood and bone marrow
-lymphatic organs
-heart
What is involved in the sinusoid?
-small blood vessels similar to capillaries
-permeable to small and med proteins
-endocrine tissue and bone marrow
What organs are involved with the lymphatic tissue?
-tonsils
-lymph nodes
-thymus
-spleen
Does the lymphatic system have vessels?
-vessels similar to veins
-no equivalent to arteries
-no equivalent to heart or pump
What is lacteals?
-similar to capillaries
What is the fluid in the lymphatic system called?
-fluid is called lymph
What are the 4 functions of the heart?
1.generates BP
2.routes blood
3.ensures on way blood flow through blood vessels
4.functions in blood supply regulation
What is the heart made of?
-a pump of fibrous, muscular tissue
-made of 2 highly specialized blood vessels
-2 atria and 2 ventricles
How many times does the heart beat in 24 hours?
100,000 times
How many liters of fluid does the heart handle in 24 hours?
7200 liters
How much does a normal heart weigh?
250-300 grams
Which side of the body does the heart mostly sit on?
-2/3 of heart to left of mid-line
-sits at an angle in the body
-pyramid shaped
What is the heart?
a 2 sided pump
-R=pulmonary circuit
-L=systemic circuit