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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The nevrous system has how many systems and what are they?
3 Three

1 Functional

2 Anatomical Divisions
The functional division consist of nerves of the ____ nervous system which contols ____.
Peripheral PNS

Autonomic Functions
The PNS is composed of all nerve tissue located where?
The Central Nervous System CNS
The PNS nerves act as messengers of the nervous system and carry what two types of impulses?
Sensory (Afferent)

Motor (Efferent)
What impulses are transmitted from the tissue to the CNS for interpretation?
Sensory (Afferent)
Which impulses are transmitted from the CNS through the PNS to out tissues to control their activities?
Motor (Efferent)
The anatomical division is divided into what two parts?
Brain & Spinal Cord
The brain is composed of an outer portion of ____ matter called (____), and an inner portion of ____ matter.
Gray (Cortex)

White
The brain consist of what three divisions?
Cerebrum

Cerebellum

Brain Stem
The brain is divided into what three sections?
Forebrain - (cerebrum)

Midbrain

Hindbrain - (cerebellum, pons, & medulla oblongata)
Which portion of the brain is considered the largest?
Cerebrum
What divides the cerebrum into right & left hemispheres?
Longitudinal Sulcus
The right & left hemispheres of the cerebrum, which are divided by the longitudinal sulcus, are connected via which bridge or commissure?
The Corpus Callosum
What does the frontal lobe control?
Thought, intelligence, memory & speech
What does the parietal lobe control?
Memory through association and touch
What does the temporal lobe control?
Hearing, balance, taste & smell
What does the occipital lobe control?
Interpets sight & visual sensation
What is the function of the mid-brain?
It connects the cerebrum to the pons & the cerebellum

(It is stem-like)
What does the hindbrain consist of?
The cerebellum, pons & the medulla oblongata
What is the largest part of the hindbrain?
Cerebellum
How is the cerebellum separated from the cerebrum?
By a deep transverse cleft
What functions does the cerebellum control?
Skeletal muscles to maintain equalibruim, muscle coordination & posture
The hemispheres of the cerebellum are connected by what?
Vermis
The cerebellum contains numerous transverse sulci. The tissue between the curved sulci are called what?
Folia
What forms the upper portion of the hindbrain, which acts as a bridge betwenn the cerebrum, cerebellum & medulla oblongata?
The Pons
What extends between the pons & the spinal cord & forms the lower portion of the hindbrain?
The medulla Oblongata
The brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord & consist of what?
Pons

Medulla Oblongata

Midbrain - Mesencephalon &
Diencephalon.
What is the main function of the spinal cord?
Transmission of neural inputs between the periphery and the brain.
The spinal cord consist of an inner ____ cellular substance & an outer ____ fibrous substance.
Gray Cellular

White Fibrous
The spinal cord extends from the medulla oblongata of the brain, & terminates where?
The conus medullaris near the lumbar level at L1-L2
There are how many pairs of spinal nerves which arise from two roots along along both sides of the spinal cord?
31 Pairs
Spinal nerves below the termination of the spinal cord extend inferiorly through the vertebral canal, which resemble a horse's tail referred to as?
Cauda Equina
The ventricular system of the brain consist of 4 irregular, fluid containing cavities which communicate with each other through connecting channels to acomplish what?
Cushion the brain & absorb shock
What are the 4 ventricles of the brain?
Two Lateral (Right & Left)

Third

Fourth
The lateral ventricles of the brain are located where?
In each cerebral hemisphere
The lateral ventricles of the brain are U-shaped with the bodies prolonged anteriorly, posteriorly, & inferiorly into what horn-like portions?
Anterior, Posterior & Inferior
How does eachlateral ventricle communicate with the third ventricle?
Interventricular foramen

(or)

Foramen of Monroe
The third ventricle is a slit like cavity, located on the midline, just inferior to the level of the bodies of what?
The lateral ventricles
How do the third ventricles communicate with the fourth ventricles?
Cerebral Aquaduct

(or)

aquaduct of sylvius
How is the fourth ventricle shaped?
Diamond
The fourth ventricle communicates with the subarachnoid space via what?
The Median Aperature or Foramen Magendie

And The

Lateral Apertures or Foramina of Luschka
What is the name of the combined 3 continuous, protective membranes which enclose the brain & spinal cord?
Meninges
What are the 3 meninges?
Pia Mater (tender mother)

Arachnoid Membrane (delicate)

Dura Mater (tough mother)
The pia mater (tender mother) is what sheath?
Inner Sheath
The arachnoid membrane is what sheath, & is separated by a wide space called what?
Delicate central sheath

Subachnoid space
The dura mater (tough mother) is what sheath?
Outermost sheath
The dura mater is seperated arachoid by what?
Subdural Space
The dura mater is separated from the vertebral periosteum by what space?
Epidural Space
The portion of the dura mater (tough mother)which is located in the cranium, is composed of how many layers?
Two 2

Outer to line cranial bones

inner to protect brain & blood vessels
What fluid also functions to cushion the brain & spinal cord?
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Describe cerebrospinal fluid:
Colorless fluid which is constantly being formed & reabsorbed
What does cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contain?
Protein, glucose, & salt as a source of nutrition for the nerve cells
Where is CSF formed?
Choroid Plexus
What is the circle of willis?
A circle of 4 major arteries which supply blood to the brain.
What are the 4 main arteries of the circle of willis?
Right & Left Common Carotid

Vertebral

Basilar
The right & left common carotid arteries supply anterior circulation, & bifurcates into what cerebral arteries?
middle & anterior
What vertebral arteries form the arch of the aorta & ascend through the neck?
Vertebral
The right & left posterior cerebral arteries arise from where?
R & L posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries.