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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Overview (Ref a, b)
U.S. forces face a potential CBR threat across a broad range of military operations. The term "NBC environment" includes a deliberate or accidental employment or threat of NBC weapons attack with other CBR materials, including toxic industrial materials. The employment and threat of NBC weapons and other toxic materials pose unique challenges to U.S. military operations worldwide.
Chemical Warfare (Ref a, b, d)
Chemical Warfare is the employment of chemical agents that are intended for use
in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate personnel due
to their physiological effect. The 1st Type of NBC
agents are:
Nerve Agents.
Liquid casualty agents that disrupt nerve impulses to the
body while damaging body functions rather than tissue. Examples are Sarin
(GB), Tabun (GA), SOMAN (GD), and VX.
The 2nd Type of NBC
agents are:
Blister Agents.
Liquid or solid casualty agents that can cause inflammation, blisters, and general destruction of tissues which often results in temporary blindness and/or death. Examples are Distilled mustard (HD), Lewisite (L), Phosgene Oxime (CX), and Levinstein Mustard (HL).
The 3rd Type of NBC
agents are:
Blood Agents.
Gaseous casualty agents that attack the enzymes carrying
oxygen in the blood stream. Rapid breathing or choking may occur due to
lack of oxygen in the blood. Examples are Hydrogen Cyanide (AC), Cyanogen
Chloride (CK), and Arsine (SA).
The 4th Type of NBC
agents are:
Choking Agents
Gaseous or liquid casualty agents with initial symptoms
that include; tears, dry throat, nausea, vomiting, and headache. The lungs can become filled with fluid, making the victim feel as if they are drowning, causing breathing to become rapid and shallow. Examples are
Phosgene (CG) and Diphosgene.
M9 Chemical Agent Detector Paper.
Detects the presence of liquid chemical agents by turning a red or reddish color, it does not detect chemical agent
Atropine/2-PAM-chloride Auto Injector.
Used as specific therapy for nerve
agent casualties, they are issued for intramuscular injection, self-aid or first
Biological Warfare (Ref a, b, d)
Biological Warfare is the use of agents to cause disease, sickness, or death to
reduce the effectiveness of opposing combatant forces is. The basic division in biological agents is between pathogens and toxins.
The pathogens that could be used as biological agents include bacteria, rickettsia, viruses, fungi, protozoa and prions.
The categorization of toxins is based on the organisms (source) that produce them and the physiological affects the toxins cause in humans.
The major groupings by source are mycotoxins
(which are from fungi),
bacterial toxins, algal toxins, animal venoms and plant toxins.
The primary groups based on physiological effects
are neurotoxins, cytotoxins, enterotoxins and dermatoxins.
Individual Protective Equipment (IPE) for Chemical/Biological Warfare
Training and awareness of personnel is the primary way to limit the chemical
and biological warfare impact. To accomplish this all personnel shall have
access to IPE while in the workstations and be aware of ventilation controls,
fittings, and closures that must be set immediately prior to an attack.
The decision to employ IPE is the most important decision in the risk management of chemical agent environments.
This is due to extended wearing of various items of IPE will result in varying degrees of degradation to individual performance. IPE for chemical/biological agent environments consists of:
Protective mask
MCU-2P with components (C-2 canister filter)
Advanced chemical protective garment
Chemical protective gloves
and liners
Chemical protective overboots
and laces
Skin decontamination
Medical self-treatment supplies
are not considered IPE but are provided to complement the individual protection capability.
The phased employment of IPE is specified by the increasingly stringent levels
of MOPP, maintaining the proper MOPP level as dictated by the
tactical situation
and environment is paramount
Radiological Warfare (Ref a, b, c)
Radiological Warfare is the deliberate use of radiological weapons to produce
widespread injury and death of all life. Types of nuclear explosion are:
High altitude air burst
occurs at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet, with
ionosphere disruptions and EMP.
Air burst where fireball does not reach the surface.
The vacuum created
collects debris caused by the severe blast damage resulting in radiation
Surface Burst
has the worst fallout due to the fireball touching the surface
which results in massive radioactive fallout.
Shallow underwater burst
has a small fireball and blast wave however, it causes large waves and water contamination.
Deep underwater burst
is simllar to the shallow underwater burst but with
less visual effect and yields greater contaminated water.
Shipboard shielding stations are categorized as either ready or deep-shelter
Ready-shelter stations
are just inside the weather envelope, with access to
deep shelter. They provide minimum shielding from nuclear radiation and
allow the crew to remain close to battle stations.
Deep-shelter stations
are low in the ship and near the centerline. They
provide maximum shielding from nuclear radiation, often requiring personnel
to be far removed from battle stations.
DT-60 dosimeter
is a non-self reading high range casualty dosimeter, which has
to be placed in a special radiac computer-indicator to determine the total amount
of gamma radiation to which the wearer is exposed in the 0-600 roentgens.
Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) (Ref a, b, c, d)
MOPP is a management tool that is used to coordinate the use of systems and
equipment in Chemical or Biological environment. Full protective clothing and
equipment will not be necessary in all CB threat scenarios and using the full IPE could result in unacceptable personnel performance degradation.
MOPP level O.
Issue IPE, accessible within five minutes.
MOPP level 1
Afloat. JSLIST, MASK, Gloves readily accessible.
Ashore. Don protective equipment, M9 tape
MOPP level 2
Afloat.- Mask carried, decon supplies stage.
Ashore - Additional to level 1 is don protective over-boots.
MOPP level 3
Afloat. GQ, install filters, don over-boots.
Ashore. fill canteens, activate decon stations.
MOPP level 4
Afloat. Don mask/hood, gloves, Circle William, countermeasure washdown.
Ashore. Gloves with liners, untie bow in retention cord, loop between
legs and secure to web belt.