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87 Cards in this Set

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Right and left thyroid lobes connected by
Isthmus
Isthmus located just below
Cricoid cartilage
Bottom of thyroid usually goes to ___ vertebral level
C4 or C6
Remnant of embryonic thyroglossal duct
Pyramidal lobe
Foramen cecum
Where thyroid pierces through tongue through the thyroglossal duct
____ (3) occurs when thyroid is enlarged
Dysphagia
Dispnea
Infection
Dysphagia
difficulty or discomfort in swallowing, as a symptom of disease
Right and left thyroid lobes connected by
Isthmus
Dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing
Potential sites of abberant thyroid glandular tissue/thyroglossal duct tissue (3)
Superior/infront of thyroid cartilage
Superior/in front of hyoid bone
Superior to hyoid bone - root of mouth
Blood supply to thyroid
-2 arteries
--Occasional 3rd
1. Superior thyroid (from ext. carotid)
2. Inferior thyroid (from thyrocervical trunk)
--3. Thyroid Ima (from subclavian)
Vascular supply to thyroid
-3 veins
-____ drain into internal jugular
-____ drain into brachiocephalic
1. Superior thyroid - Int. jug.
2. Middle thyroid - int. jug.
3. Inferior thyroid - brachiocephalic
Surgical relations to thyroid gland
Inferior thyroid a. to recurrent laryngeal n.
Parathyroid glands located ____ on thyroid
Posterior
C cells produce
Calcitonin
Calcitonin
Reduces blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium resorption by the bone (osteoblasts)
Function of thryoid gland
Endocrine gland that produces thyroid hormone & calcitonin
Follicular cells produce _____ under control of _____
Thyroid hormone; anterior pituitary
Anterior pituitary under control of
Hypothalamus
Thyroid hormone works in conjunction with ____ to stimulate ____
Growth hormone; cellular metabolism
Thyroid hormone
-Increases
-Important in
-Crucial in normal development of
-Metabolism
-Body growth
-NS
____ is essential diet component for TH
iodine
Hyperthyroidism cause
Hyperthyroidism presentation (4)
Too much TH
Skinny
Jittery
Nervous
Dry skin
Hypothyroidism cause, presentation (3)
Too little thyroid hormone
Fat
Sluggish
Tired
Calcitonin stimualtes osteo____
Blasts
PTH stimulates osteo____
plasts
____ is an antagonist to calcitonin
PTH
____ increases blood calcium
PTH
PTH stimulates Ca+ release from ____; conservation by ___, activation of
bone; kidney; Vitamin D
Parathyroid in relation to thyroid capsule
Within
Low calcium levels lead to life threatening _____ disorders
neuromuscular
Parathyroid supplied by ____ a.
Inferior thyroid
-Goiter
-Usual cause worldwide
-Usual US cause
-Enlargement of thyroid gland
-Iodine deficiency
-Hyper/hypothyroidism
Enlargement of thyroid gland compresses
1.
2.
3.
4. (nerve)
1. Trachea
2. Larynx
3. Esophagus
4. Recurrent laryngeal n.
Grave's disease
Autoimmune disease; immune system overstimulates thyroid gland, causing hyperthyroidism
Extreme Hyperthyroidism symptoms
(PEG)
Proptosis
exophthalmos
Goiter
exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball or eyeballs
Proptosis
abnormal protrusion or displacement of an eye or other body part
Hashimoto's Disease
Autoimmune disease; Chronic thryoiditis, thyroid is destroyed resulting in hypothyroidism & goiter
-Antibody implicated in Grave's disease
-Role
-Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin
-Binds to thyroid cells, mimics TSH
Dangers of thyroidectomy
Bleeding
Damage to recurrent pharyngeal
Hyper & Hypoparathyroidism
Remember PTH is antagonist to TH
Carotid Triangle Boundaries
Posterior digastric
Superior Omohyoid
Anterior border of SCM
Carotid sheath extends from ___ to ___
Base of skull to root of neck
Carotid sheath contributed to from:
All fascial layers of neck
Investing layer of deep cervical fascia
-Surrounds
-Splits into 2 layers to enclose:
-Entire neck
-Trapezius/SCM & Supra/infrahyoid mm.
Prevertebral fascia
-Surrounds
-Becomes continuous with ____ at _____
-Everything except trap and SCM
-Endothoracic fascia; anterior longitudinal ligament
Sympathetic trunk covered by ____ fascia
Prevertebral
50% of retropharyngeal abscesses occur in pt. _____ age; 96% occurring before
6-12 months; 6 year
Retropharyngeal abscess symptoms in children
Irritability
Lymphadenopathy
Torticollis
Poor oral intake
Sore throat
Drooling
Torticollis
a condition in which the head becomes persistently turned to one side
Retropharyngeal abscess symptoms in adults
Pain
Dysphagia
Snoring
Nasal obstruction
Anorexia
General Retropharyngeal abscess symptoms
Dyspnea
Respiratory distress
Lateral or posterior oropharyngeal wall bulge
Retropharyngeal abscess cause in children
Suppurative process in lymph nodes (nose, adenoids, nasopharynx, sinuses)
Suppurate
undergo the formation of pus; fester
Retropharyngeal abscess cause in adults
Trauma, instrumentation
Submandibular space abscess symptoms
Pain
Drooling
Dysphagia
Neck stiffness/anterior neck swelling
Floor of mouth edema
Cause of submandibular abscess is usually
Odontogenic origin
Ludwig's angina
Infection of the floor of the mouth (submandibular space) with secondary involvement of sublingual and submental spaces
___ gland surrounds the terminal portion of the submandibular duct
Sublingual gland
Sublingual gland supplied by ___ innervation
Parasympathetic (Secretomotor) from submandibular ganglion either directly or through lingual n.
Thoracic duct drains:
LE, L. UE, L. Head
Right lymphatic duct drains
R Head, R UE
Scalp/skin lesions with metastasize to ___ area
In front of ear
Oropharynx, hypopharynx lesions with metastasize to ___ area
Below ear
Nasopharynx lesions with metastasize to ___ area
Posterolateral neck
GI, UG, Pulmonary lesions with metastasize to ___ area
Root of neck
Oral cavity lesions with metastasize to ___ area
Body of mandible
Larynx, tongue, hypopharynx lesions with metastasize to ___ area
Anterior border of SCM
Recurrent laryngeal n. travels up between ___ and __ before reaching larynx
Esophagus; thyroid
Esophagus
Upper 1/3 is ____ m.
Middle
Lower
Skeletal
Mix
Smooth
Root of the neck
Junction between neck and thorax
Green layer
Orange layer
Purple Layer
Red
-Investing layer of deep cervical fascia
-Prevertebral fascia
-Pretracheal fascia
-Carotid sheath
Superior thyroid a. supplies (SIS)
SCM
Infrahyoids
Superior pole of thyroid
Submandibular gland is 1 of 3 ____; secretes it's product into ____
Salivary glands; submandibular duct (Wharton's duct)
Innervation of submandibular gland
CN VII (Facial) via chorda tympani
-Type of secretions from parotid gland
-Type of secretions from Sublingual gland
-Type of secretions from submandibular gland
-Watery/serous
-Thick, mucousy
-Mix of serous and mucous
Parasympathetic stimulation of submandibular gland produces ___ saliva because
Watery; vessels dilate
Sympathetic stimulation of submandibular gland produces ___ saliva because
Thick mucousy; vessels constrict
Subclavian vessels
"Very Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Daily"
• Vertebral artery
• Thyrocervical trunk
--Inferior thyroid
--Superficial cervical
--Suprascapular
•Costocervical
--Superior intercostal
--Deep cervical
Largest branch off aorta
Brachiocephalic trunk
Thoracic duct travels posterior to ____ before draining into ____
Carotid sheath; junction of L subclavian and L internal jugular
-Location of 1st part of subclavian
-Branches off 1st part of subclavian a.
-Medial to anterior scalene
Vertebral
Internal thoracic
Thyrocervical trunk
Vertebral a. travels through:
Foramina of C6-1
___ gives off anterior intercostal aa.
Internal thoracic
-2nd part of subclavian (location)
-Branches of 2nd part of subclavian
-Posterior to anterior scalene
Costocervical trunk
-Location of 3rd part of subclavian a.
-Branches
Lateral to anterior scalene
Dorsal scapular