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21 Cards in this Set

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Describe the 2 tibiofibular joints... what are they strenthened by?

What is their most important movement?
Superior
Head of fibula w/ lateral tibial condyle
Synovial, plane gliding (upward, during dorsiflexion)
Fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane
Strengthened by anterior & posterior ligaments

Inferior
Distal tibia & fibula
Syndesmosis consisting of an interosseous tibiofibular ligament
Strengthened by ant., post. &inferior transverse tibiofibular ligaments


Most important movement: Separation of distal fibula & tibia by trochlea of talus during dorsiflexion
Besides the tibiofibular joints, what joins the tibia and fibula?
interosseous membrane (syndesmosis)
Describe the ankle (talocrural joint)
between the inferior ends of the tibia and fibula above and the trochlea of the talus below
hinge type of synovial joint
main motions are dorsiflexion and plantar-flexion
What limits the ankle joints movement?
Movement limitation:
Deltoid & lateral ligaments
Joint capsule
Contact between tibia & fibula> tibiofibular syndesmosis
Tenson of antagonistic muscles: dorsiflexors or plantarflexors
Describe the articular surfaces of the ankle joint

what do they form?
The articular surfaces on the medial malleolus and inferior end of the tibia* and the articular facet on the longer lateral malleolus of the fibula

form a deep mortise/socket for the trochlea of the talus
Describe the fibrous capsule of the ankle joint

What reinforces it? What does it resist?
thin anteriorly and posteriorly

Reinforced on its sides by ligaments:

on the medial side, the strong deltoid ligament (medial collateral ligament) that resists eversion of the foot

on the lateral side, the weaker lateral ligament (lateral collateral ligament) resists inversion of the foot
What 4 components make up the deltoid ligament? Where do they pass between?
passes from the medial malleolus (tibia) to the talus, navicular, and calcaneus:
Posterior tibiotalar
Tibiocalcaneal
Tibionavicular
Anterior tibiotalar
What makes up the weaker lateral ligament of the ankle?
passes from the lateral malleolus (fibula) to the talus, navicular, and calcaneus:
Anterior talofibular ligament, the most frequently torn part
Calcaneofibular ligament, which is sprained next
Posterior talofibular ligament
In what position is the ankle most stable?
Is most stable in dorsiflexion because the trochlea of the talus is wider anteriorly than posteriorly
What are the arteries of the ankle joint?
Malleolar branches of fibular,

posterior tibial

& anterior tibial arteries
What are the nerves of the ankle joint?
Branches from tibial and deep fibular nerves
What forms the walls of the compartments of the leg?
crural fascia (Deep fascia of the leg)

Septa:
Interosseous membrane
Anterior intermuscular septum
Posterior intermuscular septum
Transverse intermuscular septum
what actions are performed by the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg?
DORSIFLEXION > ANKLE JOINT

EXTENSION OF TOES >JOINTS OF FOOT (interphalangeal joints)
What is the motor nerve of the anterior leg? What is the cutaneous nerve?
All anterior compartment muscles are innervated by the deep fibular nerve, a branch of common fibular (sciatic n.)

Saphenous nerve is cutaneous nerve (br of femoral n.)
What is the main blood supply to the anterior leg?
The main blood supply to the anterior compartment is the anterior tibial artery. This is a branch of the popliteal artery, and later becomes the dorsalis pedis artery
What is the main actions of the lateral compartment of the leg?
EVERSION OF FOOT > FOOT JOINTS
What is the motor nerve of the lateral leg? cutaneous nerve?
All lateral compartment muscles are innervated by the superficial fibular nerve, a branch of common fibular (sciatic n.)

Lateral sural cutaneous nerve (br of common fibular n.)
what is the main blood supply to the lateral leg?
perforating branches of both the fibular artery & anterior tibial artery
what are the 3 actions of the posterior compartment of the leg?
PLANTARFLEXION > ANKLE JOINT

FLEXION OF LEG > KNEE JOINT*

FLEXION OF TOES >JOINTS OF FOOT (interphalangeal joints)
What is the motor nerve of the posterior compartment of the leg? What are the 2 cutaneous innervations?
All posterior compartment muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve, a branch of sciatic n.

Cutaneous nerves:
Saphenous nerve
Lateral & medial sural cutaneous nerves merge into sural nerve
Tarsal Tunnel

where is it?

what runs through it?

what does not run through it?
Posteriomedial side of ankle
Held by flexor retinaculum

Passage of structures (deep posterior compartment of leg) around base of tibia to plantar surface


From anterior to posterior:

tendon of Tibialis posterior,

tendon of flexor Digitorium longus,

posterior tibial Artery,

tibial Nerve

& tendon of flexor Hallucis longus

> Nemnonic (Tom Dick ANd Harry)

except for anterior tibial artery and deep & superficial fibular nerves (anterior to ankle)