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15 Cards in this Set

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Lingual Thyroid
Thyroid tissue that is left at the BASE of the tongue
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
Glandular tissue left BETWEEN tongue and thyroid
Often present when they become infected
Hyperplasia/Goiter
NON-neoplastic, NON-inflammatory enlargement
Much more common with LOW IODINE INTAKE
More common in women
Hyperthyroidism
EXCESS thyroid hormone
Induces HYPERmetabolic state
Exopthalmos
Almost always caused by abnormal thyroid stimulator
Graves Disease
Most common cause of hyperthyroidism
IgG Abs function as agonists to TSH receptor
More common in women
Familial Disposition
Gland is SYMMETRICALLY enlarged, firm and red
Scalloped surface
Hypothyroidism
TOO LITTLE thyroid hormone
Characterized by Myxedema
Boggy appearance of skin; bloating
Dry, cool skin; Hoarse voices
Cardiomegaly
Thyroiditis
Etiologies include autoimmunity and infection
Acute is very rare -- commonly due to spread of an organism
Hashimoto thyroiditis
Autoimmune
Abs to thyroid microsomal peroxidase (95%) and thyroglobulin (60%)
10 times more common in women
Familial disposition
Diffusely enlarged
De Quervain's Thyroiditis
Subacute
Self-limited
Fever, dysfunction, rarely, a mass
Secondary to viral infection
5 times more common in women
Multi-nucleated giant cells
Papillary Carcinoma
Most common malignancy of thyroid
More common in women
Patients rarely die
White, firm, gritty mass
Psammoma bodies
Nuclear enlargement, central clearing, pseudoinclusions, and grooves
Follicular Adenoma
Most common neoplasms of thyroid gland
4th and 5th decades of life
Women are 7 times more likely
Usually well-defined and surrounded by a capsule
Uniformly sized follicles
Appear different than the surrounding gland
Follicular Carcinoma
These tumors show HEMATOGENOUS spread
Do NOT involve LNs
Widely Invasive -- up to 50% mets
Minimally Invasive -- < 3% mets
Both types have similar histology to follicular adenoma
Look very much like follicular adenomas, except for invasiveness
Anaplastic Carcinoma
Thought to develop from pre-existing papillary or follicular carcinoma
Large, aggressive
Universally fatal (death within 6 months)
Medullary Carcinoma
Up to 20% familial
Arise in patients with MEN 2A or 2B
Germline RET mutations
These tumors SECRETE CALCITONIN
5-yr of 50%
Spread nodally or hematogenously
Most often occur in SUPERIOR thyroid
Amyloid can often be identified
Lymphoma
Similar to lymphoma elsewhere
Some low-grade lesions may be cured by simple excision