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7 Cards in this Set

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Classification of LDL levels
Optimal = <100
Near optimal = 100 - 129
Borderline High = 130 - 159
High = 160 - 189
Very High = >190
Major risk factors for CHD
Cigarette smoking
Hypertension
Low HDL
Family History
Age (men > 45; women > 55)
Risk categories and LDL goals
CHD and CHD equivalents LDL < 100
Multiple (2+) Risk factors LDL < 130
0-1 risk factors LDL < 160
Major apolipoprotein components
HDL -- A1(co-factor for LCAT)
LDL -- B100(recognized by LDL-R)

Apolipoprotein measurements may be of more value than cholesterol
Lipoprotein(a)
Recently defined as an independent risk factor
LDL-like structure -- B100 is bound to apolipoprotein(a)
Apo(a) is the specific marker of Lp(a) [similar to plasminogen]
Promotes thrombosis via interfering with clot lysis
Lp(a), when oxidized, is taken up very rapidly by macrophages --> foam cells
Homocysteine
Enhances the atherosclerotic process:
Generates superoxide and H2O2
Enhances blood coagulation
Inhibits dilation of small arteries
Promotes arterial smooth muscle proliferation
Interacts with LDL to form aggregats which are incorporated into foam cells

Treatment with folic acid, B6 and B12 lowers homocysteine levels
C-Reactive Protein
Concentrations shown to be related to endothelial dysfunction
Good predictor of future risk of vascular disease