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19 Cards in this Set

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Steps of risk assessment
1 -- Hazard identification
2 -- Dose-response assessment
3 -- Exposure assessment
4 -- Risk characterization
Effects of maternal smoking
Adverse fetal development (strongest effects at weeks 20-36)
Increased incidence of SIDS
Types of Radiation
Alpha (blocked by a piece of paper)
Beta (stopped by a layer of clothing)
Gamma (penetrates several feet of concrete, passes through organic tissue)
X-rays
% of radiation exposure due to medicine
15% (11% from X-rays, 4% from nuclear procedures)
Symptoms of Arsenic exposure
Skin lesions, peripheral neuropathy, anemia
Carcinogenic
Elemental Mercuy
Inhaled
Affects CNS and kidney
Clearnance is Renal or GI
Causes Tremor
Inorganic Mercury
Ingested or cutaneous exposure
Affects the kidney
Clearance is Renal or GI
Causes tremor, and erethism
Organic Mercury
Ingested
Affects CNS, kidney, and liver
Clearance is Renal or GI
Causes paresthesias, ataxia, tremor, tunnel vision, dysarthria
Effects of Cadmium
(Zinc substitute)
Nephrotoxicity
OSTEOmalacia (accelerated collagen catabolism and bone demineralization)
Effects of Chromium
Nasal/Skin ulcers
INSULIN RESISTANCE
Nephrotoxic
Effects of Aluminium
Dialysis ENCEPHALOPATHY
Anemia
Osteodystrophy
Linked to ALZHEIMER's?
Effects of Iron
HEPATOtoxicity
Ferritin release --> Vasodepression (SHOCK)
Iron poisoning
Stages of Iron Poisoning
I - 0-6 h -- GI, CNS, CV, Hyperglycemia
II - 6-24 h -- CNS
III - 12-48 h -- GI, CNS, CV, Acidosis, Liver damage
IV - 4-6 wk -- GI
Effects of Zinc (essential element)
Too much is 100 - 150 mg/day
Stomach cramps, N/V
Over time: anemia, PANCREAS damage, lower levels of HDL
Amphibole Asbestos
Long, slender, brittle fibers
Inhaled
Become trapped in the lungs

Remember, risk of lung cancer 5x higher in smokers
Serpentine Asbestos
Small fibers
90% of the world's asbestos
Are NOT deposited in the lungs
Acute Symptoms of Pesticide Exposure
SLUDGE

Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation
GI distress
Emesis
Treatment for pesiticide exposure
Pralidoxime, Oxygen, Atropine
Pyrethroids
Derivatives from crysanthemum used as pesticides

Most severe toxicity is to the CNS
May mimic organophosphate toxicity
Treatment is supportive
Vitamin E may stop paresthesias