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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What did Claude Bernard say?
The concept that it is important that the internal milieu or internal environment be maintained constant.
What is he considered founding as a result?
What did Walter Cannon term?
He termed the term "homeostasis"
What is the whole body set up to maintain?
Your internal environment constantly regardless of where you live.
What percentage of the body is water?
The intracellular compartment is _____% of your body's water weight.
The extracellular compartment is _____% of your body's water weight.
Where is the interstitial compartment, and what percentage of your bodies water weight does it account for?
The interstitial compartment is outside of both the cell membrane and the vascular system. It accounts for 15% of the water weight.
The plasma compartment makes up what percentage of your bodies water weight?
How many liters of water will the typical 70kg man have?
He will have about 40L of water.
What is the breakdown of intracellular and extracellular?
28L will be intracellular and 14L will be extracellular
What are the components of the intracellular compartment besides water?
It contains potassium, phosphates, and proteins
How many millimols of potassium and salts concentration does the intracellular compartment have?
It has about 150mmolar
What is the extracellular compartment composed of?
It is composed of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate
What is the major difference between the interstitial and plasma compartments of the extracellular compartment?
The major difference between the 2 is that the interstitial has very few to no proteins, while the plasma is protein rich.
The major protein of the plasma is?
What is important about albumin?
It keeps the fluid in the plasma so it doesn't leak out into the interstitial and cause death.
What is the membrane between the plasma and interstitial fluid characterized by?
It is characterized by osmosis
Are there pressure gradients in any of these areas?
No, as humans cannot maintain a pressure gradient like plant cells do
What is the membrane between the intersticial and intracellular fluid called, and what type of membrane is it?
The membrane is termed a filtering membrane, and diffusion takes place here
What is concentration of X equal to?
Amount of X / Volume
The concentration is determined by how much you start with and _____________?
How much you add
What are the two ways to increase concentration?
Add more X or decrease the volume
Where does your body take in water?
By drinking and eating
How much water do we produce per day from water metabolism production?
200 mL
Name 3 ways your body gets rid of sweat
Urine, breath, and sweat
Which of the three is significant for fluid loss?
What does it mean when input equals output?
We are at water balance and the water content of the body does not change
How long does it take if you drink a ton of water for the level to be returned to normal?
2-3 hours
How many systems exhibit minimal disturbance
Water content, salt content, energy stores, and temperature
What is of note about energy stores relating to obesity?
There are no receptors for maintaining body weight, and this is a reason for the obesity problems
What organs regulate pH?
Lungs and kidneys
What systems does blood pressure regulation involve?
Renal, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems
Temperature regulation involves what 5 things?
It involves skeletal muscle, skin, energy production, the brain, and behavioral thermoregulation
When looking at a feedback diagram or regulatory system, what does X represent?
X represents a normal value, and it can increase or decrease.
What changes X?
The integrator sums the effects of changes adding or subtracting inputs and outputs
What is the integrator?
It is what the body uses to determine X
What is the sensor?
It measures the concentration of variable
What is the effector?
It causes a response, such as a hormone or ANS activity
What is a hugely basic example?
If cells take up glucose (X), there would be an addition to X affecting concentration, so there must be something in the body to measure the glucose concentration, a sensor. Insulin would be the effector and would respond by bringing the glucose levels back to normal.
What are 3 examples of environmental disturbances?
Temperature, dehydration, and exercise
What are 2 examples of metabolic disturbances?
Hypoglycemia and starvation
Ingestion problem example?
Ingestion of salts
Name 6 regulated variables or processes.
Plasma osmolarity, plasma pH, blood pressure, blood volume, and body temperature
What are examples of sensors?
Beta cells of the pancreas and osmoreceptors that measure plasma osmolarity
What is negative feedback?
It is a common physiological system because it negates the disturbance and brings the variable or concentration back to normal levels
Discuss gain?
Gain is equal to the concentration over the error, and the greater the gain, the smaller the error
Is body temperature a high gain or low gain system?
It is an example of a high gain system because body temperature varies very little throughout a wide range of ambient temperatures
Is glucose regulation a high or low gain system?
It is low gain, because it is not as efficient and contains a visible error
Oscillations are typical or atypical in regulatory systems?
They are typical
Why is it ideal for patients to fast?
This eliminates variables and ensures the regulatory systems should be at basal level or resting state
What is a positive feedback system?
These systems enhance the response. You get a small change and this magnified.
How do these positive events occur? In long broad strokes or short bursts?
They occur in short bursts
Are action potentials a positive or negative feedback system? Discuss
They are a positive feedback system. A little depolarization causes the opening of sodium channels which causes more depolarization
Describe child birth's feedback system regarding oxytocin?
Oxytocin is positively enhanced during child birth, so as the infant head approaches certain areas of the birth canal, it causes increased oxytocin release, which causes increased uterine contractions, further pushing the infant out.
Is blood loss positive or negative feedback?
It is both
Describe why blood is both positive and negative feedback enhanced
When 1 liter of blood is removed there is a drop in cardiac output, but this is quickly negated by a negative feedback that brings the output back to normal. If you take out another liter of blood, too much blood has been lost. This causes cardiac output to decrease and the individual to die. This is a bad positive feedback system.