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82 Cards in this Set

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What do the names of veins correspond to?
The names of arteries adjacent
veins are the most ______ structure in every cadaver.
Variable
Are there variations from one side to another?
Yes, there can be
Do arteries have high variability like veins?
They have lower variability, but some may not look like the pictures the atlases because many times arteries form together in a common trunk and then distribute
When looking at arteries and trying to name them, what is it important to concentrate on?
It is important to focus on where the artery is going instead of where it is coming from.
Why is this?
There can be variable origins
Should we pay more attention to the distribution of veins or arteries?
Arteries
What is the brachial plexus?
It is the network of nerves stemming from C5-T1 that provide motor and sensory innervations to the upper limb
What is a plexus?
It is a network of nerves that can bring nerves in from a few sources and let the fibers intermingle and mix themselves within the plexus to reform / reorganize into named nerves to a particular body area
How many plexus types are there, and what are there names?
There are two, and they are somatic plexuses and visceral plexuses
Describe somatic plexus function, and name the 4 major somatic plexi:
Somatic plexi are used for motor / sensory function. They include the brachial plexus, cervical plexus, lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus
What does the brachial plexus innervate?
Upper limb
What does the cervical plexus innervate?
Neck
What does the lumbar plexus innervate?
Lower limb
What does the sacral plexus innervate?
Lower limb
What forms the somatic plexi?
Ventral rami, NOT dorsal rami
What does the visceral plexus compose?
The autonomic nervous system
What is the first area of the brachial plexus?
There are 5 Roots, which go from C5 to T1, and are compsoed of ventral rami
Where are the roots located?
Outside the axillary space
These roots give rise to what two structures?
They give rise to the long thoracic nerve, and the dorsal scapular nerve
What does the long thoracic nerve innervate?
Serratus anterior
What does the dorsal scapular nerve innervate?
Rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, and levator scapulae
What do the 5 roots form?
The 3 trunks
What are the 3 trunks called?
The 3 trunks are the superior, middle, and inferior trunks
What does the superior trunk form from?
It forms from the joining of C5 and C6 ventral rami roots
What does the superior trunk give rise to?
Suprascapular nerve
What does the suprascapular nerve innervate?
Supraspinatus, and infraspinatus
What does the middle trunk form from?
It forms from the C7 root continuation
What does the inferior trunk form from?
The C8 and T1 roots joining
What happens after the trunks?
6 divisions form
What are the 6 divisions critical for (2 reasons)
They are critical for the rest of the innervations because they set up innervation patterns (1) for the rest of the limb and divide them into compartments (2)
The divisions are formed from what?
The divisions are formed from two sets of fibers, anterior and posterior
When do the divisions form?
As the plexus travels deep to the clavicle
What is the anterior position responsible for?
Flexion of limb (3 divisions)
What is the posterior divisions responsible for?
It is responsible for extension of the limb in dorsal compartments (3 divisions)
What are the 3 cords that form after the divisions?
The divisions form the lateral cord, posterior cord, and medial cord
What ventral rami does the lateral cord arise from?
C5,C6, and C7
What divisions does the lateral cord come from?
It comes from the superior and middle trunks joining
Where is the lateral cord located in relation to the axillary artery?
It is located approximately at the third part of the axillary artery
The lateral cord gives rise to what?
It gives rise to one side branch, the lateral pectoral nerve
What does the lateral pectoral nerve innervate?
Pectoralis major
The posterior cord arises from what ventral rami?
It arises from C5 through T1
What divisions join to produce the posterior cord?
The posterior divisions of the superior, middle, and inferior trunks
Where is the posterior cord located in relation to the axillary artery?
it is located around the second part of the axillary artery
How many side-branches does the posterior cord produce, and what are they called?
It produces 3 side-branches, and they are called the upper subscapular, thoracodorsal, and lower subscapular nerves
What ventral rami does the upper subscapular arise from, and what does it innervate?
It arrises from C5, and C6, and it innervates subscapularis
What ventral rami does the thoracodorsal arise from, and what does the thoracodorsal innervate?
It arises from C6-C8, and it innervates latissimus dorsi
What is the thoracodorsal nerve also known as?
It is also known as the middle subscapular
What ventral rami does the lower subscapular arise from, and what does it innervate?
It arises from C6 and C7, and it innervates teres major and subscapularis
What ventral rami does the medial cord arise from?
It arises from C8 and T1
What division and trunk does the medial cord arise from?
The medial cord arises from the anterior division of the inferior trunk
Where is the medial cord located around the axillary artery?
It is located around the first part of the axillary artery
The medial cord gives rise to one side branch. What branch is this, and what does this nerve innervate?
It gives rise to the medial pectoral nerve, which innervates the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
The 5 terminal branches are critical for what?
They are critical for the rest of the upper limb
Each cord divides into what?
Two components
What ventral rami does musculocutaneous nerve arise from?
It arises from C5,C6, and C7.
The musculocutaneous nerve is a branch of which cord?
The lateral cord
What compartment of the arm does the musculocutaneous nerve supply?
It supplies to the anterior compartment of the arm
What ventral rami does the median nerve arise from?
The median nerve arises from C5 - T1
What cords does the median nerve come from?
The median nerve comes from the lateral and medial cord branches
What does the median nerve supply?
It supplies the anterior compartment of the forearm / part of hand
What ventral rami does the ulnar nerve arise from?
It arises from C8,T1, and C7
The ulnar nerve is a branch of what cord?
It is a branch of the medial cord
What does the ulnar nerve supply?
It supplies the compartment of forearm and medial side of hand
What is of note about the ulnar nerve in relation to the other terminal branches?
It is the only one exclusively C8-T1 region
The axillary nerve arises from what ventral rami?
C5 and C6
The axillary nerve is a branch of what cord?
It is a branch of the posterior cord
The axillary nerve stays in ________ and passes through _________ space to innervate teres __________ and also innervates ______
shoulder
The radial nerve arises from what ventral rami?
C5-T1
The radial nerve is part of what cord?
Posterior cord
Where does the radial nerve supply?
It supplies the main domain of all dorsal compartment of the forearm/arm
The musculocutaneous terminal branch has (motor / sensory) in the arm, (motor / sensory) in the forearm, and (motor / sensory) in the wrist
Motor, sensory, and neither
The median terminal branch has (motor / sensory) in the arm, (motor / sensory) in the forearm, and (motor / sensory) in the hand/wrist
Neither, motor, both
The ulnar terminal branch has (motor / sensory) in the arm, (motor / sensory) in the forearm, and (motor / sensory) in the hand/wrist?
Neither, motor, both
The radial (dorsal) terminal branch has (motor / sensory) in the arm, (motor / sensory) in the forearm, and (motor / sensory) in the hand/wrist
Both, both, and sensory
Which ventral rami are important to segmentation of the brachial plexus?
C5-C6 and C8-T1
The only nerve that does not follow the logical string of events for deciding ventral rami is what?
Axillary nerve, which is C5,C6
If C5-C6 spinal region were damaged, how many nerves and thus their innervations would be affected?
Musculocutaneous nerve, axillary nerve, and suprascapular nerve
If something was damaged in the C8-T1 region, what would be damaged?
Unlar nerve would be the only damaged one because it is exclusively in the C8-T1 region
What is the dermatome pattern for thumb?
C6
What is the dermatome pattern for Index/Middle?
C7
What is the dermatome pattern for the ulnar side (pinky)
C8