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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the scapular muscle?
It runs between the scapula and arm.
It is considered part of the back muscles?
No, but they are on the back.
What are two more?
Serratus posterior inferior and serratus posterior superior.
If you remove everything superficial to the intermediate layer, you have one set of intrinsic muscle in the back called the _______?
Erector spinae muscle
What are the 3 longitudinal bands we divide the erector spinae muscle into?
llliocostalis muscle, the longissimus muscle, and the spinalis muscle.
Where does it appear the erector spinae muscle runs from?
The posterior attachment up through the lower 2 thoracic vertebrae.
Specifically, as a posterior attachment, what is it's origin?
The sacrum and illiac crest.
What are the 2 thoracic vertebrae it attaches to?
You would consider its insertions to be?
Cervical vertebral column and skull
What does this muscle do?
It helps keep you erect.
It's not one big muscle though, so what attaches actually?
Shorter muscle fibers, like 4 or 5 spinal segments in width.
The lateral column of it inserts where?
The ribs down at the bottom.
What is this lowest lateral column called?
The illiocostalis
Where do some slips of the illiocostalis go all the way to?
The mastoid process.
Ileo-costalis is most ______, and clearly inserts into ribs?
What do these muscles do?
They move your back.
What two movements do they afford us?
Rotatory movement and extension of your back.
What is extension important for maintaining?
What are the faschia here?
The thoracolumbar faschia.
What does it divide to if you look at a cross-section?
It divides into a deep, intermediate, and superficial layer.
Every deep muscle has a _____?
Tissue sheath
What does this allow?
It allows muscles to slip and slide past one another.
If this sheath was not there, what would happen?
Muscles would become erodied.
What is another function of the faschia?
They act as a barrier to infection.
Posterior to the erector spinae muscle, passes what?
The thoracolumbar faschia superficial layer.
Does this faschia pass anywhere else in relation to the erector spinae?
It also passes anterior to it.
Solid joints have lots of movement or little movement?
Very little movement.
What is the most common joint?
Synovial joint
What do synovial joints allow?
Movement- they provide our skeleton with articulation to function
Typical fibrous joints are the _______?
What is the gomphosis?
A fancy name for the tooth within the bony socket.
What is another fibrous joint?
The sutures of the skull
The syndemosis is the joint of the ________?
The interosseous membrane, which is between the radius and ulna.
Is there a syndemosis anywhere else?
There also is a syndemosis between the two bones of the leg.
What does the interosseous membrane allow?
It allows the two bones along this joint to rotate around each other, specifically the radius rotating around the ulna.
What are they connected by?
The interosteous membrane
What are cartilagenous joints?
Two bones joined by connective tissue
What is an example of a cartilagenous joint?
The intervertebral disc is a slightly moveable cartilagenous joint.
What is the place called where the right and left pubic bones are joined, the most anterior structure of the pelvic area called, and is it asyndemosis?
Yes, it is and its called the pubic symphysis.
The epiphyseal plates of the longbone grow, and where they grow is a joint called the?
What do planar joints do?
Slide past one another
What is a ball and socket joint?
It is a joint like the shoulder joint and hip joint
What are condyloid joints?
Joints with a complex curvature, like two rounded surfaces
What is a saddle joint?
The articulation of the metacarpal and carpal bones is one, where you have a curvature like a saddle in one and a saddle in another.
Hinge joints are?
Like your elbow, with no side-to-side movement and only hinge movement
Pivot joints are?
Like the radius or pivot joint of your head.
What is an articular capsule?
A very basic feature of a synovial joint. It has very strong connective tissue running from proximal to the distal end of the joint.
What is an intrinsic ligament of that joint?
It's part of the capsule, and is a ligament that runs between proximal and distal and adds additional strength to the joint.
What are extrinsic ligaments?
They are dense connective tissue, from bone to bone, but they are some distance from the joint.
So intrinsic is associated with _____?
The capsule only
What is articular cartilage used for?
To prevent bone to bone contact.
What do most articular capsules have lots of?
The synovial membrane is what?
It contains secretory cells that secrete synovial fluid.
What is an articular disc?
What many joints have that runs between the joint that divides the joint into an upper and lower portion.
Where is one example of where we have an articular disc?
We have one in our temporal mandible because we masticate so much.
What is a miniscus?
A partial articular disc, and spread from the articular capsule centrally, and interposes itself between upper and lower articulations of the knee joint.
What does the miniscus do?
It basically is just for added cushioning.
What is the bursa?
Another important factor in synovial joints that are outpocketings of the synovial membrame.
What is it filled with?
It is filled with synovial fluid
What are the joints, main parts, and how vertebrae of different levels differ from eachother?
Where are the spinal nerves?
Midterm babies have what kind of spinal curvature?
Primary curvature
At birth, what has already begun forming?
The secondary curvature.
So primary is rounded, and second is flattened?
Cervical is what at adulthood?
Secondary curvature
Thoracic is what at adulthood?
Primary curvature
What is the erector spinae muscle like that helps prevent toppling over?
A cantilever
As spinous processes get larger, what does this provide?
More area for muscles to attach to.
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
How many sacral vertebrae are there?
How many coccygeal bones are there?
So how many total bones in the spine are there?
What is the innervation of the erector spinae called?
Segmental innervation
What does this mean?
It means it gets innervated by whatever spinal nerves are at that spinal level.
So how many dorsal rami are there?
What do the dorsal rami do?
They innervate deep muscles of the back, and a thin strip of skin along your entire dorsum, from neck all the way down.
Do dorsal rami contribute to the plexuses associated with the extremities?
So we have 2 extra nerves, where do they come from?
We have 8 cervical nerves rather than 7 for the 7 cervical vertebrae, and one added one for the coccyx.
What is the little foot of bone called on a vertebrae?
What does the pedicle do?
It runs between the body and transverse process of that process.
How many transverse processes are there?
1 one either side, so 2.
What is the lamina?
It runs between transverse process and lateral process
What is the vertebral canal?
It extends from the cervical spine to the lumbar spine and holds the spinal cord.
Each vertebrae has a vertebral foramen, and lined together they make what?
The vertebral canal
How many joints does the typical vertebrae have?
6 joints
How many do the thoracic vertebrae have?
10-12 joints
Why do you have extra ones in thoracic vertebrae?
Because of the ribs on each side
What is the name for the joints between the superior and inferior articulating process?
The zygapophyseal joints
By looking at a vertebra, how do you know if its thoracic or lumbar?
Thoracic vertebrae have articulations for ribs inferior and superior for whatever ribs are attached to them.
What is another distinguishing characteristic?
An extreme downward slope of the spinous process.
Think of the spinal processes as what for thoracic vertebrae?
Sharply canted downward, which is a hallmark of thoracic vertebrae
In the thoracic region, zygapophyseal joints are almost vertical but slope slightly forward. So what does this provide in a movement perspective?
It allows you to make rotatory movements but prohibits front back movements.
In the lumbar vertebra, how do the zygapophyseal joints look?
They are the oppostie the thoracic. They are arranged to prohibit rotatory movement.
What does this allow you to do in lumbar?
It allows you flex and bend, but not spin.
What does the pedicle contribute to?
The intravertebral foramen.
In cervical vertebrae, you have a transverse foramen which does what?
It carries the vertebral artery in most of the upper cervical
Is this process free to move?
Yes, somewhat free
Where does most rotation happen?
Most rotation happens C1-C2 though.
What does C7 have?
It has a bifid spinous process, which are these two little tubercules on the spinous process.
What is the C1 called?
The atlas
What does the anterior arch and posterior arch have on C1?
A tubercle
What else does the anterior arch and posterior arch have on C1?
A transverse process on each, and a space for the brain and nervous system
What is the C2 called?
The axis
What sticks up off the C2, and what does it do?
The dens looks like a tooth, stick up off the C2, and it is for pivoting articulation between C1 and C2.
Where do you nod between?
Skull and C1
Where is most rotatory movement around your head done?
At that C1 - C2 joint.
The sacrum has what type of curve?
Primary curve
When looking at the disc, what two things does it have?
It has the anulus fibrosus, and the nucleus pulposus
What is the anulus fibrosis?
A fibrous anular ring.
What is the nucleus pulpsus like?
It is like jelly or pulp
What does the anulus fibrosis act as?
Shock absorbers
What is it called if you slip a disc, and what is happening?
It is called evulsion of the nucleus pulposus, and it's when bits of your nucleus leak out of the anulus fibrosis due to weakening
If evulsion goes near the pedicle, what happens?
This is where it can hit the spinal nerve and impinge upon it
What does the longitudinal ligament do, and where is it?
It is in the front of the vertebrae, and prevents hyper-extension. [Front of body]
The anterior longitudinal ligament prevents ______?
What does the posterior longitudinal ligament prevent?
It helps prevent hyperflexion, like moving too far forward
What is the ligamenta flava?
They are between adjacent lamina.
What does the supraspinous ligament do?
It is a strong connective band running from the sacrum and coccyx to the skull area.
Between it and the base of the spinous process is the ______, which fills the space?
Interspinous ligament