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106 Cards in this Set

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Ligaments:
bind joints & connect bones and cartilage
Tendons:
connect muscle to bone
Cartilage:
nonvascular, supporting connective tissue located mainly in joints, thorax, trachea, larynx, nose & ears
Lordosis:
exaggeration of anterior convex curve of lumbar spine
Kyphosis:
increased convexity in curvature of thoracic spine
Scoliosis:
Lateral “S” or “C” shaped spinal column with vertebral rotation, unequal heights of hips and shoulders
Mobility:
The ability to move about freely
Immobility:
Inability to move about freely
Bedrest:
An intervention that restricts clients for therapeutic reasons
When assessing pain, need to assess?
P attern- Onset, duration, what relieves or exacerbates

A rea- location of pain

I ntensity- 0-10 scale

N ature- throbbing, burning, aching, crushing, pressure
What are the s/sx of a simple fracture?
doesn't poke through the skin
What are the s/sx of a compound fracture?
pokes through tthe skin
Patients with a compounf fracture would have an increased risk of ___?
infection
What symptoms may indicate a dislocation?
-pain
-shortened limb
How do you hold limb when doing ROMs?
Support proximal joint
What are potential complications for someone with a fracture of a long bone?
fat emboli
CMS:
circulation
motion
sensation
What are priority nursing actions when you suspect someone has a bone fracture?
CMS
Assess limb for?
CMS
DVT prevention?
-Ted Hose
-anticoagulents
Improve leg muscle strength?
Walking
Leg Circles
Tighten Muscles
What are the primary goals for someone with OA?
maintain current level of function & pain
Fuctions of the skeletal system?
-attachment for muscles & ligaments
-protects vital organ
-calcium regulation
-long bones contain bone marrow which produce RBCs
Movement requires?
coordination between the MS & nervous systems
Metabolic (assessment):
-anthropometric measurements
-intake & output
-s/sx dehydration or enema
Respiratory (assessment):
-chest wall for movement
-auscultate the lungs
Cardiovascular (assessment):
-VS
-DVT
-Edema
-Orthostatic hypotension
Development (assessment):
how immbobilty affect the normal development of clients accross the lifespan
Integumentary (assessment):
braden scale for ulcers
Psychosocial (assessment):
-emotional state
-behavior
-sleep wake cycle
-abrupt changes in personality
Elimination (assessment):
-intake & output
-bowel sounds
-bowel & bladder habits
Musculoskeletal (assessment):
-muscle strength & tone
-loss of muscle mass
-incidence of contractures
-ROM
General Goals of MS disorders?
-achieve highest level of mobility
-reduce hazards of immobility
Semi-Fowlers:
30 degrees
Fowlers:
90 degrees
Supine:
Face up
Prone:
Face down
Side lying:
30 degrees on their side
use pilloes
Sims:
laying on side
usually left
Contusions:
bruising, rupture of small blood vessels
Sprains:
ligament injusy caused by wrenching or twisting
Strains:
tendon injury and/or muscle pull from overuse, overstretching, incomplete muscle tear
Dislocation/Subluxation:
complete/incomplete displacement of joint
Soft Tissue injury interventions:
PRICE:
Protection
Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation
What is ROM used for?
-to maintain mobility
-muscle strength
Purpose of NSAIDs?
reduce inflammation, swelling, pain
Fracture:
-break in the continuity of a bone
-usually caused by trauma, blunt force
Complete:
through the bone
Incomplete:
Partially through the bone
Simple:
-closed
-fracture of the bone with no skin break
Compound:
-open
-fracture with break in skin
Pathological:
break with slight pressure or min trauma
Displaced:
fragment is over-riding other bone fragment
Spiral:
the line of the fracture extends in a spiral direction along the shaft of a bone
Transverse:
a fracture in which the line of the break extends across the bone shaft at a right angle to the longitudinal axis
Longitudinal or oblique:
parallel or at an angle to longitudinal axis
Crepitus:
grating sound/feel with movement
Reduction:
realignment of broken bones
Closed Reduction
MD or traction pulls to realign
Open reduction internal fiaxation (ORIF):
-pins, screws, or plates inserted to maintain alignment
-traction may also be required to maintain reduction and to stimulate healing
Fracture Hematoma:
fibrin clot forms at break
Healing Patho of a fracture:
1. Bone cells die
2. soft tissue damage occurs
3. Osteoblastic activity (callus formed)
Callus
immature bone is formed
CPM
continuous passive motion
Compartment Syndrome:
-nerve & blood vessel damage or destruction from swelling & edema in a confined space
-pain is intense (much greater than expected from fx)
6 P's:
Paresthesia (numbess & tingling)
Pain (not rel. with meds)
Pressure (increases in compartment)
Pallor (color)
Paralysis (loss of function)
Pulse (absent)
THR
total hip replacement
TKR
total knee replacement
THR
total hip replacement
TKR
total knee replacement
Osteoarthritis
slowly progressive, non-inflammatory disorder of the synovial joints
Osteophytes
build-up of boney growths
S/SX osteoarthritis:
-pain
-stiffness in one or more joints
-crepitation
Diagnostic tools for Osterarthritis:
-arthroscopy
-x-ray
-MRI
-CT scan
-ESR usually not elevated unless synociti present
Osteoporosis:
-chronic progressive loss of bone tissue, low bone mass, structural deterioraion of bone tissue
-8x more common in women
- bones become weak and fracture easlity with strain, bump or fall
Diagnostic tools for Osteoporosis:
-bone mineral density (assesses bone mass)
-DEXA: BMD test measure bone density of spine, hips, and forearm
-bone scan
Prevent contractures:
-do not elevate limb on pillow.
-lie on abdominal for 30 mins 3-4x a day withhip extended
-don't sit more then 1 hr per MD
Flexion
bring parts closer together
Extension
extending outwards
Abduction
away
adduction
towards
pronation
palm down
supination
palm up
circumduction
arm
inversion
ankle in
eversion
ankle out
rotation
head
protaction
forward
retraction
back
elevation
up
depression
down
NSAIDs
Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs
(ibuprefen)
Fosamax (alendronate)
-prevent/tx osteoporosis
-take w/ full glass of water
-sit up for at least 30 mins
Glucoasmine & Chondroitin
-herbal for osteoarthritis
-don't take if allergic to shellfish
-avoid with anticoagulents, NSAIDs
-need to take long-term for effect
Metabolic (interventions):
-high protein, high -caloric diet with vitamin B & C supp
Respiratory (interventions):
-assess lungs
-turn, cough and deep breaths every 1 to 2 hours
-incentive spirometer
Cardiovascular (interventions):
-progress from bed to chair to ambulation
-SCDs, TED hose, and leg exercises
Musculoskeletal (interventions):
-active/passive ROM
-CPM= continous passive motion
Integumentary system (interventions):
-skin assessment, skin car
-reposition every 2 hours
Elemination system (interventions)
-adequate hydration
-I&O
-diet rich in fluids, fruits, veggies, and fiber
Traction
application of pulling force on an injured or diseased part of the body or extremity while counter-traction pulls in opposite direction
Purpose of traction:
-prevent or reduce spasm
-immobolize joint or body pary
-reduce (realign) a fracture or dislocation
-treat pathological conditions of joint
-expand joint space during arthoscopic or joint reconstruction surgery
Skin traction:
adhesive material anchored to skin with bandage, sling, blet, boot, splits
Bucks traction:
for hip, femur, knee, back
Pelvic belt:
for sciaica, minor fractures of lower spine
Pelvic sling:
for pelvic fractures to provide compression