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16 Cards in this Set

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Under what circumstances would you write an order for your patient to be transfused with pRBC’s (packed RBC)?
1. To increase O2 carrying capacity
2. Dilute sickled RBC’s
Under what circumstances would you write an order for your patient to be transfused with platelets?
1. Decreased platelet count WITH bleeding/ bruising.
2. Pre-operative prophylaxis
3. Dysfunctional platelets WITH bleeding/ bruising.
What is an absolute contraindication for blood products?
Volume replacement.
What are the relative contraindications for platelet transfusion?
1. Hypersplenism
2. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), thrombocytopenia of no known cause.
What are the absolute contraindications for platelet transfusion?
1.Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), a rare disorder of blood coagulation causing extensive microscopic blood clots to form in the small blood vessels throughout the body. Most cases of TTP arise from deficiency or inhibition of the enzyme ADAMTS13, which is responsible for cleaving large multimers of von Willebrand factor (vWF)
2. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (HITT)
Under what circumstances would you write an order for your patient to be transfused with flash frozen plasma (FFP)?
1. pre-operative prophylaxis
2. Deficiency in clotting factors WITH bleeding/ bruising:
• Excess Coumadin (warfarin)
• Vit K deficiency
• Liver disease
• Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Under what circumstances would you write an order for your patient to be transfused with cryoprecipitate?
1. Decreased fibrinogen WITH bleeding / bruising.
2. Dysfunctional fibrinogen WITH bleeding/ bruising.
3. Last resort for Vonwillebrand’s (hereditary coagulation abnormality) or Hemophillia patients.
What is the most common blood group in the Canadian population?
Group O, Rh positive
What type of scenario is indicated for a pRBC transfusion?
The indication for packed red cell (pRBC) transfusion is symptomatic anemia.
What is the simplest and least expensive infusion substance to maintain blood volume in an acute situation?
Normal saline
Identify the infection with the greatest chance of occurring following a blood transfusion in Canada?
HBV; The rate of HBV infection is in the range of 1 in 30,000 to 1 in 80,000 units transfused. All other infections occur at rates of less than 1 in a million.
What risk categories are associated with transfused blood products?
Immune responses
Infections
Fluid balance
‘lytes/ ions
Name common immune related transfusion reactions:
ABO incompatibility
IgG antibody incited
Febrile
Allergic
Anaphylactic (rare)
How can transfused blood products cause adverse fluid reactions?
Volume overload
Hypothermia
How can transfused blood products cause adverse electrolyte reactions?
Increased K+
Decreased Ca2+
Increased FE2+
How will you respond to a patient receiving transfused blood products who shows signs of a transfusion reaction?
Stop the transfusion
ABC’s
Send blood units for investigation
Draw blood for hematologic tests
Order a CXR