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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
basics about the skeletal system
dynamic: change throughout life, 206 named bones

axial skeleton: centrAL axis
appendicular: appendages holding to the central axis (arms, legs, hands, feet)
within cartilage, most bones are this meaning they wer eformed within cartilage
osteoblasts: immature bone cells not yet surrounded by bony matrix (ossifcation: bone formation)
osteocytes:mature bone cells surrounded by bone matrix.

otseoblasts mature into osteocytes
the long middle part of the bone is dense bone surrounding a central canal: houses the marrow
red marrow/ yellow marrow
red: spongy, where blood cells are formed
yellow: compact, where energy is store
the ends of the bone, they include the epiphyseal plate (area of cartilage where long bones continue to grow during childhood, etc): when bones stop growing, cartilage is replaced by bone
the inside of the bone
concentric rings of matrix laid by osteocytes surrounding a central canal. one circle of this is haversion system (otseon)

cells in the bone communicate through holes in the matrix called canaliculi.
canaliculi allow fluids and nutrients into the bone
bone development
prenatal: cartilage
fetus: some conversion to bone
childhood: primary and secondary ossification sites formed
adolescence: cartilage growth plate elongates
osteoclasts: large cells that adhere to the surface of bony tissue and release acids and enzymes:bone breaking cell...if you are low in calcium, they will break down calcium already in bone

osteoblasts: bone formation

osteocytes:mature bone cell sthat maintain the structure of the bone

chondroblasts:cartilage forming cells that form a model of the future bone
Bone remodeling and repair:
changes in shape, sizes, and strength: depends on diet, exercise, age
-bone cells regulated by hormones

Repair: hematoma (bruise/massive blot clot that develops over the site of the fractured bone) and callus formation (fibrocartilage bond between broken ends that is converted into bone by osteoblasts)

osteoclasts absorb the dead bone tissue
heal bone is often stronger and thicker than original
diseases/effects of bad bones
osteoporosis: thinning of the bone structure caused by imbalance of deposition and resorption
carpal tunnel: repetitive motions cause inflamation of ligament
arthritis: cartilage at the end of the bone wears out: becomes inflamed and painful
3 types of joints
fibrous: immovable, connect bones in skull
cartilaginous: slightly movable, vertebrae, lower ribs to the sternum

synovial: free movement between 2 bones, most common joits in the body
limbs comprise the
appendicular system
COX causes inflammation and pain
COX1 in the stomach helps mucus formation. Aspirin blocks COX1 AND 2 so this can lead to irritation and bleeding
between bones
ligament: dense regular connective tissue connecting bone to bone

tendon: dense regular connective tissue connecting muscle to bone
synovial fluid:
fluid secreted by the inner membrane of the synovial joint
fluid filled sac between the bones or tendonsif a joint and the skin positioned to reduce friction
fat pads within joints that cusion bones to assist in "fit"