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18 Cards in this Set

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cell theory
all cells, regardless of source, have similar characteristics:
-all living things composed of cells
-all cells from preexisting cells
-cells have heriditary material and pass on during cell division
-chem. comp. of cells similar
-metabolic proccesses in life occur in cells
organelle,keratin, melanin, carotene
organelle: membrane bound structure inside cytosol within a cell, maintain celleluar homeostasis
keratin: may be in cytosol, fibrous proteins that form hard structures, waterproofs the cell
melanin: absorbs UV light in cell
carotene: precursors to vitamin A
cell membrane composition
semi-permeable: allows nutrients to enter and waste to leave

2 layers of phospholipids that are interspersed with proteins, fats, and sugars. the phos.lipids are arranged in bilayer with hydrophilic, water-loving heads (charged end of molecule) that are facing towards the aqeuous environment (water). the lipid portion that fears water of the molecules is in the center of the layer
proteins and lipids associated with the cell membrane:
glycoproteins: protein plus a carbohydrate, form a layer called the glycocalyx-defines an organism
glycolipids:lipid plus at least one carbohydrate group
movement across the cell membrane
passive and active.
passive: filtration,
diffusion: (mvt. of substance towards area of lower concentration,)
facilitated diffusion:: all dont require energy
active: uses energy from ATP and ADP, -can move atoms, ions, and molecules into the cell (endocytosis: 2 types)
-can move them out (exocytosis:excretion/secretion)
actiions of the phodpholipid bilayer:
is amphipathic
blocks the diffusion of water soluble(aqeuous) solutes which is not good cause we need those.
so:
the bilayer has integral and peripheral proteins that serve as channels and receptors for them to enter and leave
osmosis
diffusion of water across semipermeable membrane.
solutions with HIGHER solute concentrations pull water towards them
-water cannot pass the phospholipid bilayer so it must go through TRANSPORT proteins
isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic
isotonic:water flows equally in and out of the cells through the proteins
hypotonic: the cell will take in too much water and probably burst because the water has lower solute concentration than the cell
hypertonic: will probably cause the cell the shrivel because the water will have a higher solute concentration of solutes than the cytosol in the cell
high solute concentration=
low water concentration
2 types of endocytosis
pinocytosis: cell drinking, or taking in a small quantity of the extracellular fluid
phagocytosis: cell eating, or taking in of large molecules and particles using vacuoles
Intramembrane pumps
another way to moce small molecules and ions through cell membrane.
Sodium/potassium ATPase: act as common reciprocal pump: move 2 potassium ions in and three sodiums out
cytoskeleton
internal framework of a cell,
directly underneath the cell membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum
folded membranes,

Rough endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes (RER)
Protein manufacture
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has no ribosomes (SER)
Lipid synthesis
golgi complex
near the end of the soft ER.
is a bunch of saccules used to transport substances within a cell
packages and processes proteins
Also produces lysosomes (digestive enzyme sac)
lysosomes
chemical packages produced by the golgi complex and contain
hydrolytic enzymes: proteins that help decompose compounds by splitting bonds with water molecules
nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, DNA in nucleus
n. envelope: the two layers of cell covering the nucleus
n. pores: punctuate the nuclear envelope: allow molecules to enter and exit the nucleus.
DNA: the cell's library which is "read" by RNA
RNA: read the DNA in the nucleus. the process of forming RNA is called TRANSCRIPTION
cell signaling
3 routes:
1) circulating hormones released into the bloodstream to reach every cell
2) local hormones (paracrines) can be released to only affect cells in the vicinity
3)cells of epithelial and muscular tissues can interact with other cells directlly
...also:
gap junction: used for instantaneous communications: very small distances and are extremely specific
cell division
"mitosis"
-DNA/organelles are duplicated, DNA condensed into packets and sorted into seperate nuclei,- two intact cell membranes are formed each containing DNA and organelles of parent cell