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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What muscle(s) make up the anterior axillary fold?
Pectoralis major
What muscle(s) make up the posterior axillary fold?
Latissimus dorsi and teres major
What are the four bony topographic landmarks of the pectoral region?
Sternum, ribs, clavicle, and scapula
Where are the jugular notch and sternal angle located?
Jugular notch is at the top of the sternum; the sternal angle is where the 2nd rib meets the menubrium
In males and children, what marks the 4th rib interspace?
The nipple
What are the borders of the deltopectoral triangle and what does it contain?
The borders are the clavicle, deltoid, and pectoralis major. The triangle contains the cephalic vein, which drains blood from the upper extremities and empties into the axillary vein.
What are the two heads of the pectoralis major and what are the differences between them?
1. The clavicular head: originates from the medial 1/2 of the clavicle; flexes arm from an extended position
2. Sternocostal head: originates from medial part of the anterior thoracic wall; fibers sometimes continue inferiorly and medially attach to the anterior abdominal wall, forming an additional part of the abdominal muscle; extends the arm from a flexed position, particularly against resistance

The two heads acting together allow the arm to flex, adduct, and medially rotate at the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint.
Where are the pectoralis minor and subclavius located in relation to the pectoralis major?
Underneath (more posterior)
What is the clavipectoral fascia? where is it located?
Fascia that envelopes the pectoralis minor and contains three structures: pectoral nerve, branches of the thoracoacromial artery, and the cephalic vein.
This deep fascia encloses the subclavius, pectoralis minor, and attaches the clavicle (above) and to the floor of the axilla (below)
Where is the breast located (boundries)?
Vertical boundary: Ribs 2-6
Horizontal boundary: side of the sternum to the midaxillary line
Rests on the fascia of the pectoralis major (separated by layer of loose CT - retromammary space)
What is the breast composed of?
The mammary gland (a modified skin gland), adipose tissue of the superficial fascia, and overlying skin with the areola and nipple
The breasts has 15-20 lobes, each of which has a lactiferous duct which opens at the nipple (each opens independently)
What are Cooper's (or supporting) ligaments?
Fibrous bands in the breast fixed to the overlying skin and underlying pectoral fascia
Breast tumors can shorten the length of these ligaments, creating 'orange peel' skin - dimpling on the skin of the breast
What is the axillary tail of Spence?
A prolongation of breast tissue that extends into the axilla (not always present)
Describe the blood supply to the breast.
Blood is supplied medially by the internal thoracic (mammary) artery and laterally by the lateral thoracic artery (vessels from the axillary artery)
What are the paths of lymphatic drainage from the breasts?
1. To the axilla - pectoral nodes (superficial), apical axillary or infraclavicular (deep)
2. To parasternal nodes along internal thoracic artery and opposite breast; drains extensively, in every direction
Why breast cancer is so dangerous
What constitutes the lateral border of the axilla?
Coracobrachialis, short biceps, long biceps, and humerus
What constitutes the posterior border of the axilla?
Latissimus dorsi, teres major, subscapularis
What constitutes the medial border of the axilla?
Serratus anterior muscle, intercostals, ribs 2-6
What constitutes the anterior border of the axilla?
Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, clavicle, subclavius
What structures create the apex of the axilla?
The clavicle, scapula, and rib 1
What are the two arteries the axillary artery becomes? What are the boundries of these arteries?
The subclavian artery becomes the axillary artery after crossing rib 1. After the axillary artery crosses the inferior margin of teres major, it becomes the brachial artery.
What are the boundaries of the three sections of the axillary artery?
First section: Rib 1 to the superior border of pectoralis minor
Second section: Superior border of pectoralis minor to inferior border of pectoralis minor
Third section: Inferior border of pectoralis minor to inferior margin of teres major
Arteries have branches, and veins have __________.
What makes up a NAV?
Neurovascular bundle: nerve, artery, and vein
Beginning at the superior end of the axillary artery, what are the branches coming from it?
Supreme thoracic artery, thoracoacromial artery, lateral thoracic artery, anterior humeral circumflex, posterior humeral circumflex, subscapular artery
Screw the lawyer, save a patient.
What branch of the axillary artery divides into four branches abbreviated PCAD?
The thoracoacromial artery - branches into the pectoral, clavicular, acromial, and deltoid branches
What does the axillary vein become when it crosses rib 1 and enters the neck?
The subclavian vein
True or false: The anterior humeral circumflex artery is usually larger than the posterior.
False; the posterior humeral circumflex artery is usually larger
What is/are the branch(es) of the first division of the axillary artery? Where do they supply blood to?
1. Supreme thoracic artery: supplies blood to the upper regions of the medial and anterior axillary wall
What are the branches of the second division of the axillary artery? Where do they supply blood to?
1. Thoracoacromial artery: supplies anterior axillary wall and related regions; splits into four branches:
1. Pectoral: goes to the breast
2. Deltoid: to clavipectoral triangle, accompanies cephalic vein
3. Clavicular
4. Acromial

2. Lateral thoracic artery: goes to medial and anterior walls of axilla (some branches continue to supply the breast)
What are the branches of the third division of the axillary artery? Where do they supply blood to?
1. Anterior humeral circumflex artery: goes to surrounding tissues, including glenohumeral joint and head of the humerus
2. Posterior circumflex humeral artery: curves around surgical neck of the humerus and goes to surrounding muscles and glenohumeral joint
-anastomoses with anterior c.h. artery and branches from profunda brachii, suprascapular, and thoracoacromial arteries
3. Subscapular (largest branch): goes to posterior wall of axilla and contributes blood to posterior scapular region