Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/49

Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Pectoralis major (pectoral region)
Crosses glenohumeral joint

Origin: Medial 1/2 of the clavicle, front of the sternum, costal cartilages (1-7)
Insertion: Crest of the greater tubercle (lat. lip of the bicipital groove)
Action: Flexion at shoulder joint (glenohumeral), medially rotates the shoulder, horizontal adduction (toward the midline)
Innervation: Medial and lateral pectoral nerves
Pectoralis minor (pectoral region)
Deep to pec. major

Origin: Anterior surface of ribs 2-5
Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula
Action: Medially rotates, protracts and depresses the scapula, elevates the ribs
Innervation: Medial pectoral nerve
Serratus anterior (superficial back)
Wraps around the thoracic cage

Origin: Ribs 1-8
Insertion: Ventral surfaces of the superior and inferior angles and vertebral (medial) border of the scapula
Action: Protracts the scapula (pull forward), laterally rotates the scapula
Innervation: Long thoracic nerve
Roses are red,
Violets are blue,
The long thoracic goes to the serratus anterior
Trapezius (superficial back)
Origin: Occipital bone, spines of C7 and T1-12 and ligamentum nuchae
Insertion: Lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, acromion, and spine of the scapula
Action:
Upper fibers elevate the scapula
Middle fibers retract the scapula
Lower fibers depress the scapula
A combination of upper and lower fibers laterally rotate the scapula
Innervation: Cranial nerve 11 (aka Spinal accessory nerve) and some upper cervical nerves
Origin: Oh! See 7 and 12?
Rhomboids (major and minor)(superficial back)
Minor is smaller and located above the major

Origin: Spines of C7 and T1-5
Insertion: Vertebral (medial) border of the scapula
Action: Retract and medially rotate the scapula
Innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve
Levator Scapulae (superficial back)
Cylindrical

Origin: tranverse processes of C1-4 (deep neck)
Insertion: Upper part of medial border of the scapula (superior angle of bone)
Action: Elevates and helps medially rotate the scapula
Innervation: Fibers off 3rd and 4th cervical nerves
Latissimus Dorsi (superficial back)
Broad, flat upper limb muscle

Origin: Thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inferior angle of the scapula and lower ribs
Insertion: Intertubercular groove of the humerus (floor of the groove, between pec. major and teres major)
Action: Extend, adduct, horizontally abduct (open arms), and medially rotate at the shoulder
Innervation: Middle subscapular (thoracodorsal) nerves
RIST - (lower) Ribs, Iliac crest, inferior angle of the Scapula, and Thorocolumbar fascia

Also, action - almost everything that brings the arm back - med. scapula rotation, horizonal abduction, extension, and adduction
Deltoid (deltoid region)
One of the muscles attaching the humerus to the scapula; on top of shoulder

Origin: Lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, acromion and spine of the scapula
Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of the humerous
Action: Abducts at the shoulder, anterior fibers flex the shoulder, posterior fibers extend at the shoulder (arm back)
Innervation: Axillary nerve
Teres Major (deltoid region)
One of the muscles attaching the humerus to the scapula

Moves anterior to the long head of the triceps.

Origin: Inferior angle of the scapula
Insertion: Crest of lesser tubercle of the humerus
Action: Medially rotates and adducts at the shoulder
Innervation: Lower subscapular nerve
Coracobrachialis (deltoid region)
One of the muscles that attaches the humerus to the scapula

Origin: Coracoid process of the scapula
Insertion: Humerus
Action: Flexes at the shoulder
Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve
Subscapularis (deltoid region)
One of four rotator cuff muscles

Origin: Subscapular fossa of the scapula
Insertion: Lesser tubercle of the humerus
Action: Medially rotates and abducts at the shoulder
Innervation: Upper subscapular nerve
Supraspinatus (deltoid region)
One of four rotator cuff muscles; most frequently torn in rotator cuff injuries

Origin: Supraspinatus fossa of the scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle of the humerus
Action: Abducts the shoulder
Innervation: Suprascapular nerve
Infraspinatus(deltoid region)
One of four rotator cuff muscles

Origin: Infraspinatus fossa of the scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle of the humerus
Action: Laterally rotates the shoulder
Innervation: Suprascapular nerve
Teres Minor (deltoid region)
One of four rotator cuff muscles

Origin: Lateral border of the scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle of the humerus (under spinatus muscle insertions)
Action: Abducts and laterally rotates the shoulder
Innervation: Axillary nerve
Long Head of Biceps (anterior brachium)
Crosses shoulder joint and is most powerful supinator muscle

Origin: Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
Insertion: Tuberosity of radius and to the ulna by the bicipital aponeurosis (spreads out bicep insertion)
Action: Elbow flexion, supination, shoulder flexion
Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve
Short Head of Biceps (anterior brachium)
Origin: Coracoid process of the scapula
Insertion: Tuberosity of radius and to ulna by bicipital aponeurosis (same as long head of biceps)
Action: Elbow flexion (less effective in pronated position) and supination
Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve
Brachialis(anterior brachium)
Origin: Humerus
Insertion: Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna
Action: Elbow flexion ('workhorse') - no matter what position arm is in
Innervation: Musculocutaneous
Lateral head of the triceps (posterior brachium)
Origin: Humerus shaft (usually above radial groove)
Insertion: Olecranon of ulna
Action: Extends elbow
Innervation: Radial nerve
Long head of triceps (posterior brachium)
Origin: Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
Insertion: Olecranon of ulna
Action: Extends elbow
Innervation: Radial nerve
Medial head of triceps (posterior brachium)
Deep, below the radial groove

Origin: Humerus
Insertion: Olecranon of ulna
Action: Extends elbow
Innervation: Radial nerve
Brachioradialis (Forearm Extensor)
Superficial extensor muscle

Origin: Lateral supracondylar line of humerus
Insertion: Distal radius
Action: Flexes elbow, pronate to middle position from supination and supinate to middle position from pronation
Innervation: Radial nerve
Anconeus (Forearm Extensor)
Superficial muscle

Small muscle, thick sheet of fascia covers proximal parts of the muscle

Origin: Lateral epicondyle
Insertion: Olecranon of the ulna
Action: Extend at elbow (sorta, but mostly triceps); basically cushions the posterior elbow region
Innervation: Radial nerve
Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis (Forearm Extensor)
Superficial muscles

Longus is more radial, brevis is more ulnar

Origin: Lateral epicondyle
Insertion: Base of 2nd metacarpal (longus), base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals (brevis)
Action: Abduct/radially deviate at wrist; extension at wrist
Innervation: Radial nerve
Extensor digitorum (Forearm Extensor)
Superficial muscle group

Origin: Lateral epicondyle
Insertion: Middle and distal phalanges of fingers (digits 2-5)
Action: Extends all joints from wrist to distal IP joint (digits 2-5)
Innervation: Radial nerve
Extensor digiti minimi (Forearm extensor)
Superficial muscle

Origin: Lateral epicondyle
Insertion: Joins tendons of extensor digitorum
Action: Extends wrist and all joints from wrist to distal IP joints on digit 5
Innervation: Radial nerve
Extensor carpi ulnaris (Forearm Extensor)
Superficial muscle

Origin: Lateral epicondyle and ulna
Insertion: Base of the 5th metacarpal
Action: Extend and adduct at the wrist; ulnar deviation
Innervation: Radial nerve
Abductor pollicis longus (Forearm Extensor)
Deep muscle

Origin: Radius and ulna
Insertion: Base of 1st metacarpal
Action: Abducts (saggital plane)at CMC joint, extends (frontal plane) at thumb CMC joint
Innervation: Radial nerve
Extensor pollicis brevis (Forearm Extensor)
Deep muscle group

Origin: Radius
Insertion: Proximal phalanx of the thumb
Action: Extends CMC and MCP thumb joints
Innervation: Radial nerve
Extensor pollicis longus (Forearm Extensor)
Deep muscle group

Origin: Ulna
Insertion: Distal phalanx of the thumb
Action: Extends all three joints
Innervation: Radial nerve
Extensor indicis (Forearm Extensor)
Origin: Ulna
Insertion: Joins tendons of the extensor digitorum (going to index finger)
Action: Extends joints from the wrist through the index finger (primarily the index finger)
Innervation: Radial nerve
Supinator (Forearm Extensor)
Singular deep muscle

Origin: Lateral epicondyle and ulna
Insertion: wraps around lateral surface of the radius
Action: Supinates the forearm
Innervation: Radial nerve
Abductor pollicis brevis (Thumb muscle)
Muscle of thenar eminence

Origin: Navicular and trapezium
Insertion: Base of the proximal phalanx
Action: Abducts at the CMC and MCP joints
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexor pollicis brevis (Thumb muscle)
Muscle of thenar eminence

Origin: Trapezium (superficial) trapezoid and capitate (deep)
Insertion: Radial side of proximal phalanx (superficial and deep)
Action: Flexes CMC and MCP joints of thumb
Innervation: Median nerve
Opponens pollicis (Thumb muscle)
Muscle of thenar eminence

Origin: Trapezium
Insertion: 1st metacarpal
Action: Flexes and medially rotates at the CMC joint for the first metacarpal
Innervation: Median nerve
Adductor pollicis (Thumb muscle)
Not a true thenar muscle (more intermediate)

Origin: Capitate, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals (oblique), 3rd metacarpal (transverse)
Insertion: Proximal phalanx (oblique and transverse)
Action: Adducts/flexes at CMC and MCP joints
Innervation: Ulnar nerve
Abductor digiti minimi (Hypothenar eminence)
Action: Abducts the MCP joint of the 5th digit (away from the middle finger)
Innervation: Ulnar nerve
Flexor digiti minimi brevis (Hypothenar eminence)
Action: Flexes MCP joint of the 5th digit
Innervation: Ulnar nerve
Opponens digiti minimi (Hypothenar eminence)
Action: Flexes CMC joint of 5th metacarpal
Innervation: Ulnar nerve
Lumbricals (Intermediate hand muscles)
Origin: Tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (travel from flexor side to extensor side)
Insertion: Radial side of extensor expansion of extensor digitorum
Action: Flex MCP joints for digits 2-5; extends IP joints for digits 2-5
Innervation: Digits 2&3 - Median nerve
Digits 4&5 - Ulnar nerve
Dorsal interossei (Intermediate hand muscles)
Four muscles (first is the abductor indicis)

Action: Abduct MCP for digits 2-4
Innervation: Ulnar nerve
Palmar interossei (intermediate hand muscles)
Three muscles

Action: Adduct MCP joints for digits 2,4,5
Pronator teres (Forearm flexor)
Somewhat cylindrical; superficial

Origin: Medial supracondylar ridge of medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid of ulna
Insertion: Lateral surface of radius
Action: Pronates forearm
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexor carpi radialis (Forearm flexor)
Superficial

Origin: Medial epicondyle
Insertion: 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
Action: Abduct/radially deviate the wrist
Innervation: Median nerve
Palmaris longus (Forearm flexor)
Superficial; sometimes absent

Origin: Medial epicondyle
Insertion: Palmar fascia (aponeurosis)
Action: Tenses palmar fascia, flexes wrist
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexor carpi ulnaris (Forearm flexor)
Superficial

Origin: Medial epicondyle
Insertion: Pisiform
Action: Flex and adduct (ulnar deviation) the wrist
Innervation: Ulnar nerve
Flexor digitorum superficialis (Forearm flexor)
Intermediate; broad, flat muscle

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus, radius, and coronoid of the ulna
Insertion: Middle phalanges of fingers - to proximal IP joint (digits 2-5)
Action: Flexes wrist to PIP joint for digits 2-5
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexor pollicis longus (Forearm flexor)
Deep muscle

Origin: Radius and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Distal phalanx of thumb (up to IP)
Action: Flex wrist and all three joints of the thumb
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexor digitorum profundus (Forearm flexor)
Deep muscle

Origin: Ulna and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Distal phalanges of fingers (digits 2-5) (deep to superficialis tendons)
Action: Flexes the wrist and all joints for digits 2-5
Innervation: Median nerve (radial half) and ulnar nerve (ulnar half)
Pronator quadratus (Forearm flexor)
Deep muscle

Origin: Distal ulna
Insertion: Distal radius
Action: Pronates forearm
Innervation: Median nerve