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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
3 phases of PCR
1. Denantured- DNA molecules seperatred at high temp.
2. Annealing- Stable hydrogen bonds form at low temp.
3. Extension- DNA nucleotides added to primers by DNA polymerase at medium temp.
6 things needed for PCR
1. Template- Sample for protein base sequences
2. Primers- short, single strands of DNA attatch to complimentry sites
3. Deoxynucleotides- A, C, G, T
4. DNA polymerase- binds each primer
5. MG++ - Metal in magnesium needed to activate DNA polymerase
6. Buffer- maintains optimum Ph.
What is PCR and When is it used?
Method of copying DNA rapidly in a test tube.

Used for cloning rare genes, diagnosing genetic diseases, forensic science
Rings of bacterial DNA
cut with restriction enzymes
can be combined with foreign DNA, used as vectors to transport recombinant DNA into organisms
Restriction Enzymes
Recognize specific nucletide sequences and cleave them leaving sticky or blunt ends

2 fragments must be cut with same one to stick together

used to cut plasmids
carries foreign DNA into host cell
Recombinant DNA
DNA with two types of genes
created in a lab
Recognition Sites
The specific pace where restriction enzymes know to cut DNA

Steps of Genetic Engineering (4)
1. DNA cleavage- DNA cut into fragments and seperated by size through gel electrophoresis
2. Recombinant DNA- fragments inserted into plasmids cleaved with the same restriction enzyme
3. Cloning- Vectors introduce viruses into DNA
4. Screening- Checks to make sure of correct sequence (?)
"glues" fragments of DNA back together
transgenetic organism
DNA Fingerprinting
Used at crime scenes and criminal prosecution
2 things required- DNA profile + math to prove
Polymorphic Regions
Where DNA is different
"Personal Barcode"
Length Polymorphisms
"Junk DNA" physical length of molecule varries
Sequence Polymorphisms
Subsitution of 1 or 2 base pairs
Variable Number Tandem Repeats

Short, identicle, repeating sequences of DNA repeated 1-30 times in a row