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40 Cards in this Set

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define biotechnology
using living organisms to solve problems or create useful projects
what company is the #1 producer of genetically engineered food?
monsanto
in what way has biotechnology helped change agricultural products? (4 things)
1. Naturally resistant to frost
2. Naturally resistant to bugs, fungus
3. longer shelf life
4. looks better
define transgenic
genes from 2 different organisms AKA chimera
what does MHC stand for?
Major histone compatibility
what gene makes agricultural products resistant to bugs and fungus?
chiton gene, breaks down chiton which bugs and fungus have as protection
what is the cyclosporin
immunodepressing drugs, to keep body from rejecting new organ but suppresses immune system
what do you need in ur diet for your eyesight? aka go blind
Vitamin A
Describe the golden rice situation
US inserted vitamin A gene into rice, which turned it a golden color instead of white. India rejected free seeds because some thought we were trying to poison them, geez.
define gene cloning (dumb question)
making lots of copies of genes
what are 2 reasons for gene cloning?
1. make gene copies-library development
2. harvest protein product (ex. human insulin)
what are restriction enzymes used for in bacteria?
use for defense against bacteriophages?
define exonuclease
an enzyme that breaks down a nucleic acid by removing nucleotides one by one from the end of a chain
define endonuclease
an enzyme that breaks down a nucleic acid by removing nucleotides not at the end, but somewhere in the middle
define restriction site
-a specific sequence that the restriction enzyme finds to break open
-3-8 letters long
-some make sticky ends some make blunt ends
what's pallindromic (english question) and how does it relate to...biology
can read from both ends, "Wow" "Mom"

restriction sites are pallindromic
define cloning vector
the plasmid that's GONNA GET foreign DNA
define recombinant plasmid
plasmid that GETS the foreign DNA
define genomic library
mixture of a bunch of different genes
what hybrid plasmids have been created?
yeast and bacteria
define introns
garbage TACG's
define extrons
important? TACG's
what do nucleases do?
gobble up introns
define snurps
snip and splice bad parts
what do we have but bacteria do not?
introns or snurps
what is the one eukaryote that has plasmids?
yeast
what is the operon theory?
regulation mechanism
what does the regulatory gene code for?
active repressor protein
what does the repressor protein do?
attaches to the operator, turning off all genes past it
what is the promoter?
all genes after the regulatory gene to the end of the operator
what does the repressor protein block?
RNA polymerase
what is the inducer
pulls the repressor protein off of the operator (the sugar)
when an inducer and repressor protein are together it makes a ...?
inactive repressor
what does PCR stand for?
polymerase chain reaction
define competent
making the recieving cell more receptive to get DNA
what does agarose gel do?
separate DNA and some proteins
what are the 4 things needed for PCR
-primers (DNA 3' hydroxyl supply)
-target DNA
-taq polymerase
-nucleotides
what are 5 techniques that make bacteria cells more competent?
1. sometimes a bacteriophage is used as a vector to send DNA into bacteria
2. for eukaryotic cells-electroporation-little zap
3. injection w/ needle
4. for plant cells-shoot w/ gun loaded w/ pellets "shotgun"
5. put cells in salt water
what is taq polymerase?
DNA polymerase from bacteria living in extreme hot springs
Who invented the PCR machine?
Kary Mullis