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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
tests to screen for lipid disorders
total cholesterol and HDL
ages for HPV vaccine
9-26 years
what age to start screening for lipid disorders
men at 35, women at 45 (if no risk factors)
drug that increases HDL
gemfibrozil
odds ratio approximates relative risk if what?
disease is rare
what is unacceptability bias?
patients give desirable responses that lead to underestimation of risk factors
lead-time bias
disease diagnosed earlier without actually prolonging true survival
sensitivity
probability that diseased patietn will have positive test result
a/(a+c)
specificity
probability that nondiseased person will have negative test result
d/(d+b)
positive predictive value
probability that a patient with a positive test result has the disease
how does prevalence affect positive predictive value?
test will have a higher PPV for diseases with high prevalence
negative predictive value
probability that patient with negative test result is disease-free
how does prevalence affect negative predictive value?
higher NPV for diseases with low prevalence
information about past exposure is used to calculate odds ratio
case-control study
attributable risk
incidence rate of disease in exposed - IR of disease in unexposed
formula for odds ratio
OR = ad/bc
formula for number needed to treat
NNT = 1/ (rate in untreated group - rate in treated group)
type I error
reject null when it is true
type II error
accept null when it is false
can relative risk be calculated from retrospective studies?
no
1 standard deviation holds what percent of values?
68%
2 standard deviations hold what percent of values?
95%
3 standard deviations hold what percent of values?
99.7%
test to comparte percentages or proportions (nonnumeric or nominal data)
chi squared
test used to compare 2 means
t-test
test used to compare 3 or more means
ANOVA