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26 Cards in this Set

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 tests to screen for lipid disorders total cholesterol and HDL ages for HPV vaccine 9-26 years what age to start screening for lipid disorders men at 35, women at 45 (if no risk factors) drug that increases HDL gemfibrozil odds ratio approximates relative risk if what? disease is rare what is unacceptability bias? patients give desirable responses that lead to underestimation of risk factors lead-time bias disease diagnosed earlier without actually prolonging true survival sensitivity probability that diseased patietn will have positive test result a/(a+c) specificity probability that nondiseased person will have negative test result d/(d+b) positive predictive value probability that a patient with a positive test result has the disease how does prevalence affect positive predictive value? test will have a higher PPV for diseases with high prevalence negative predictive value probability that patient with negative test result is disease-free how does prevalence affect negative predictive value? higher NPV for diseases with low prevalence information about past exposure is used to calculate odds ratio case-control study attributable risk incidence rate of disease in exposed - IR of disease in unexposed formula for odds ratio OR = ad/bc formula for number needed to treat NNT = 1/ (rate in untreated group - rate in treated group) type I error reject null when it is true type II error accept null when it is false can relative risk be calculated from retrospective studies? no 1 standard deviation holds what percent of values? 68% 2 standard deviations hold what percent of values? 95% 3 standard deviations hold what percent of values? 99.7% test to comparte percentages or proportions (nonnumeric or nominal data) chi squared test used to compare 2 means t-test test used to compare 3 or more means ANOVA