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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
categorical variable
variable expressed as categories; can be ordinal or discrete
nominal
categorical variable with values that cannot be ranked

ex. sex (male/female), blood type (A, B, AB, O)
ordinal
categorical variable with values that can be ranked

ex. cloudiness (overcast, mostly cloudy, partly cloudy, sunny)
quantitative variable
variable that can be expressed in amounts numbers; can be discrete or continuous
frequency
number of occurrences
descriptive statistics
statistics that describe the data
sample
collection of person or things on which one or more variables is measured
population
party on which inferences are being made
observational unit (case)
instance of the sample; specimen
statistic
numerical measure calculated from data
measures of center
measures meant to define the "center" or "typical value" of observations in a sample; include mean, median
measures of dispersion
include range, standard deviation, coefficient of variation
robust (resistant)
value of statistic relatively unaffected by changes in a small portion
range
difference between largest and smallest observations in a sample
coefficient of variation
the standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean
statistical inference
process of drawing conclusion about a population based on observations in a sample of that population
frequency distribution
display of frequency of each value in a data set

shape, center and spread of distribution is significant when discussing a set of data
density curve
smooth-curve representation of frequency distribution

area under density curve between A and B = proportion of Y values between A and B
p
population proportion
p̂ (p-hat)
sample proportion; and estimate of p (population proportion)
μ
population mean
σ
population standard deviation
degrees of freedom
n - 1
ȳ (y-bar)
sample mean
first quartile (Q₁)
median of data values in lower half or data set
third quartile (Q₃)
median of data values in upper half of data set
interquartile range (IQR)
difference between first and third quartiles

IQR = Q₃ - Q₁
five-number summary
minimum, maximum, median, quartiles
sampling distribution
describes how close resemblance between sample and population is likely to be
sampling distribution of p̂
collection of probabilities of all various possible values of p̂
standard error
describes uncertainty in the mean of the data
standard deviation
describes dispersion of the data
Student's t distributions
theoretical continuous distributions used for construction of confidence intervals; shape depends on degrees of freedom (df)
normal distributions
distributions represented by normal curve: standardized symmetric bell-shaped curve
binomial distributions
for binomial random variable Y: probability that n trials result in j successes
binomial random variable conditions (BInS)
Binary outcomes: two possible outcomes for each trial
Independent trials: outcomes of trials are independent of each other
n is fixed
Same value of p: probability of success on a single trial is same for all trials