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### 36 Cards in this Set

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 categorical variable variable expressed as categories; can be ordinal or discrete nominal categorical variable with values that cannot be ranked ex. sex (male/female), blood type (A, B, AB, O) ordinal categorical variable with values that can be ranked ex. cloudiness (overcast, mostly cloudy, partly cloudy, sunny) quantitative variable variable that can be expressed in amounts numbers; can be discrete or continuous frequency number of occurrences descriptive statistics statistics that describe the data sample collection of person or things on which one or more variables is measured population party on which inferences are being made observational unit (case) instance of the sample; specimen statistic numerical measure calculated from data measures of center measures meant to define the "center" or "typical value" of observations in a sample; include mean, median measures of dispersion include range, standard deviation, coefficient of variation robust (resistant) value of statistic relatively unaffected by changes in a small portion range difference between largest and smallest observations in a sample coefficient of variation the standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean statistical inference process of drawing conclusion about a population based on observations in a sample of that population frequency distribution display of frequency of each value in a data set shape, center and spread of distribution is significant when discussing a set of data density curve smooth-curve representation of frequency distribution area under density curve between A and B = proportion of Y values between A and B p population proportion p̂ (p-hat) sample proportion; and estimate of p (population proportion) μ population mean σ population standard deviation degrees of freedom n - 1 ȳ (y-bar) sample mean first quartile (Q₁) median of data values in lower half or data set third quartile (Q₃) median of data values in upper half of data set interquartile range (IQR) difference between first and third quartiles IQR = Q₃ - Q₁ five-number summary minimum, maximum, median, quartiles sampling distribution describes how close resemblance between sample and population is likely to be sampling distribution of p̂ collection of probabilities of all various possible values of p̂ standard error describes uncertainty in the mean of the data standard deviation describes dispersion of the data Student's t distributions theoretical continuous distributions used for construction of confidence intervals; shape depends on degrees of freedom (df) normal distributions distributions represented by normal curve: standardized symmetric bell-shaped curve binomial distributions for binomial random variable Y: probability that n trials result in j successes binomial random variable conditions (BInS) Binary outcomes: two possible outcomes for each trial Independent trials: outcomes of trials are independent of each other n is fixed Same value of p: probability of success on a single trial is same for all trials