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212 Cards in this Set

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gastrovascular cavities
gut, absorb nutrients
gills
gas exchange
open/closed circulatory systems
open-insects
closed-defined circulatory system
blood
distributes oxygen
blood vessels
tubular structure to deliver blood
heart
pumping mechanism
arteries/veins
which are o2 rich?
arteries-o2 rich
veins-o2 poor
open circulatory system
blood washes around in open system
sinuses
cavities accept hemolymphs
ventricles
pumping mechanism
blood flow follows what route?
arteries>capillaries>capillary beds
fish hearts
2 chamber heart
1 ventricle, 1 atrium
amphibian hearts
3 chamber heart, pulmocutaneous circuit, 2 atria, 1 ventricle
reptile hearts
pulmonary circuit, 3 chambers with partial separation of the ventricle
mammals and birds hearts
4 chambers, double circulation, 2 atria, 2 ventricles
cardiac cycle
systole-push
diastole-release
heart rate
# pump/minute
atrioventricular valve
blood flows forward
heart murmur
valve, back flow
sinoatrial mode
sinoatrial pacemaker regulates the pulse rate
structure of blood vessels
smooth muscle, pushing the blood
capillary function
high surface area to distribute the oxygen
lymphatic system
cleans up dead blood
red blood cells
hemoglobin, no nuclei
white blood cells
immune system
platelets
clotting
stem cells
undifferentiated tissue
fibinogen
major factor in blood clotting
atheroscolosis
thickening of the walls of your circulatory system
hypertension
bad distolic-systolic pressure, mainly concerned with systolic pressure
T/F jellyfish have hearts
FALSE!
How many heart chambers does each of the following have?
Fish
Amphibians
Birds
Mammals
Fish-2
Amphibians-3
Birds-4
Mammals-4
Which of the following contains hemoglobin?
Erythrocytes
Leucocytes
Platelets
Erythrocytes
Hemoglobin/Hemophelia
Hemoglobin>o2
hemophelia-blood clotting problems
malaria resistance
heterosis-heterozygote
advantage over both homozygotes
sickle-cell disease
aa-o2 deprived
AA-no malaria resistance
Aa-best genotype
acquired immunity
leave kids on the floor always
lymphocytes
white blood cells
antibodies
developed, kills foreign material
phagocytosis
eat foreign cells
neutrophils
not adapted
macrophages/monocytes
macrophages-big
monocytes-small progeniters
eosinophils
attack parasites (primary response)
interferon
attack viruses
inflammatory response
high fever, immune system goes into high gear
histamine/mast cells
mast cells produce histamine, which triggers an immune response; antihistamines shut down unnecessary immune response
apoptosis
programmed cell death, is normal in development
B/T lymphocytes
T comes from thymus
B comes from bone marrow
spleen also plays a role by cleaning up bad things
metastis
spread of cancer (colon>liver>cn)
radiation/chemotherapy
mutate them to extinction
immunoglobulins
recognition system
thymus
produces T cells
effector/memory cells
effector-primary line of defense
memory-secondary line of defense, adaptive, quasi-Lamarckian
T-cells/B-cells
T from thymus, produces memory cells (humerel), class 1 MHC (major histocompatability complex)
B from bone marrow, class 2 MHC
immunization
putting in killed bacterium (can't reproduce by but still has antigen)
blood groups
A, B, O
can't just do a blood transfer
anaphylactic shock
when immune system tries to shut down whole system
autoimmune diseases (HIV)
lupus, recognizing your own tissue as enemy tissue, then kill your own tissue
What is the function of a lymphocyte?
kill foreign material
What is phagocytosis?
eat foreign cells
iron pills
anemia, oxygen, hemoglobin-capture and distribute
low potassium
lead to a heart attack
anitbodies
identify foreign proteins (antigens)
MHC (major histocompatability complex)
different types of antigen recognition systems in order to fight multiple insults; selection for heterozygocity, can fight off 2 types of antigens if hetero, only 1 if homo, found excess heterozygocity in nature/
could be frequency dependent selection:use 1 complex until enemy adapts, then switch to other, fluctuation in what is advantageous at any given time
which is correct? can't tell
acquired immunity
learn what to attack (somewhat lamarckian, attack parasites, bacteria, viruses
immunoglobins (classes)
IgM
IgG
IgA
IgD
IgE
IgM - 1st class, 5 arms
IgG - monomer, most abundant
IgA - mucous membranes, dimer
IgD - monomer, can't cross placenta
IgE - monomore, small fraction of system
osmosis
regulatroy system to balance water within and across an individual's membranes
osmolarity
balance (water/salt)
osmoconformer/osmoregulator
osmoconformer-haline-salt
osmoregulator-regulate balance between salt/water
stenohaline/euryhaline
stenohaline-intolerable
euryhaline-conform
anydobiosis
dealing with low water input
transport epithelium
compromise-terrestrial, sweating, panting
ammonia/urea
metabolistic product of protein degredation (all forms of nitrogen), urea-liquid
uric acid
birds, reptiles, high concentration of fluid (nitrogenous by-products, both pee and poop)
malpighian tubules
found in insects (not birds/mammals)
nitrogenous byproducts of animals/fish/birds
animals-urea
fish-ammonia
birds-uric acid
renal artery/renal vein
arteries-o2, away from heart
veins-no o2
ureter
transfer urea to envirnment
urinary bladder/urethra
urinary bladder-stores exudaue
urethra-transports out
renal cortex/renal medulla
cortex-outside
medulla-inside of kidney
nephron/glomerulus/bowman's capsule
substructure of kidney
T/F Stenohaline animals cannot tolerate large fluctuationism salt concentrations
true
which of the following excretes uric acid?
birds
insects
mammals
birds, insects
T/F ADH is produced in the kidney
false
estvaries
mixture of salt/water
so salt/lots of salt
skin
controls temperature/ water loss/gain
fat retains heat
hippos get in water to get cool/get in sun to gain energy (if cold blooded, so you can move)
warm blooded
homeostasis-internal is not environmentally determined
hybernation
cyclical, shut down metabolic processes
torpor-anytime
don't spend energy that you don't need
osmoregulation
input/output of water/salt/nitrogenous products
ecology
water balance mechanism is dependent on environment
fush
lots of water (and relationship to salt)
kangaroo rats
don't pee-in order to maintain water balance, live in arid/xeric environment
hydrological model
Lorenz, Tinbgergen; ethology, innate behavioral traits
book-"King Soloman's Ring"-imprinting: learning, but age specific; Tingbergen imprinted himself as the docks mom or mate, identifying mates
Darwin's finches imprint based upon vocalization; small island-can imprint on wrong species-hybridization
ecology
interaction of organism with the environment (natural setting), trying not to destroy the environment
organismal/population
organismal-individual
population-group of individuals of same species
biosphere, dispersal
fly, water, wind, walk
temp, water, sunlight, air, physical substrate
all abiotic
physical substrate-land space you take up
ecosystems
generic community structure
disturbances
invasion, poisons (ddt), rising CO2 levels; petroleum products-->glogal warming
climate/biome
temperature/moisture effects on community structure
global/local changes
rising CO2, local changes more immediate
transplant/removal experiments
remove predator, competitor, parasite/remove necessary requirements of abiotic resources, then sees who deals the best with changes
species invasions
ecological, genetic
community
group of species in a local
eco system
generic communities repeatable around the globe
air circulation
cold air up
warm air down
biome type
spotted owl-->save old growth forest-different types of biomes ; can't just cut down and plant other trees
aquatic
photic
aphotic zones
thermocline
benthic zone
photic-can photosynthesize
aphotic zones-no light, no photosynthesis
thermocline-cycle of temp, cycles nutrients
benthic zone-really deep, bottom
freshwater: littoral/limnetic zones
littoral-close to shore
limnetic-far from shore, but can get light
wetlands/estuaries
wetlands-circulate oxygen
estuaries-hybrid between saline environment and freshwater
marine: intertidal/benthic/coral reefs
intertidal-up against the beach
benthic-bottom
coral reefs-need light, sensitive to weather
tropical forest
variable wet
constant hot

most species
savanna
variable dry
constant hot


no trees
desert
constant parched
constant hot

low water, boom/bust cycles
chaparral
variable moist
moderate hot
temperate grassland
moderate dry
moderate warm
temperate deciduous forest
constant moist
moderate warm

angiosperms
coniferous forest
constant dry
variable cold
tundra (on test)
constant parched
variable frigid

permafrost/no trees
T/F carbon dioxide levels are increasing
TRUE
T/F tundra is only found toward the north and south poles
FALSE
Which of the following is a characteristic of the tundra?
A Constant parched precipitation
B Relatively high densities of conifers
C Constant cold temperature
D Answers A and C
E All of the above
D-both constant parched precipitation and constant cold temperature
invasion of zebra mussels-most speciose group of animals in n.america; more than 50% species extinct
why is invasion successful? release from natural competitors, exploit novel resources, release from natural predators, complex traits-->founder-->flush (high population), increased evolutionary potential

why not? bottlenecks/foreign environments
altitudes from bottom
deciduous
conifer
tundra
colder
cold
ethology
programmed behavior
ecology
how an animal modulates behavior relative to proximal aspects of environment (proximal adaptations)
altricial
underdeveloped, much parental car
precocial
essentially ready to go when born (ducks)
hydrological model/displacement activity
you must expend energy/spending energy in an unproductive way
wrasse
can change sex/if biggest male leaves, largest female becomes male
lorenz/tinbergen
invented science of ethology
fixed action pattern/releaser
fixed action pattern: induced by a particular stimulus then proceeds
releaser: the stimulus
mate preferences/species mate-recognition systems
do we prefer same species or oppose other species?
DEPENDS!
optimal foraging
balance the amount of energy expended to the benefit achieved
altruism/alarm calls
altruism-give up fitness cost for relatives
alarm calls-meercats-save family b/c share same genes (more calls when next to relatives)
play
learning how to forage (eat)
ethological constraint or not
birds either hard-wired with their song or completely plastic and are influenced by what they hear
mockingbird-can mimic machinery (buzz saws)
habituation
getting used to a stimulus
imprinting
critical period when learn who to mate with (can't imprint when adult)
associative conditioning
positive/negative effects on behavior
operant conditioning
your own behavior causes a consequence
classical conditioning
someone else creates the consequence
play/sleep
practice how to get food/mate/can give puzzles and animal can figure them out
displacement activity
expenditure of energy with no real purpose
cognition
memory/space/time
cognitive maps
migration habits-know where to go
kinesis/taxis
movement relative to a stimulus
phototaxis-light-cockroaches-negative phototaxis-run from light
chemotaxis-chemicals
solitary hunters/group hunters
solitary-cheetahs
group-lions
agnostic behavior
reconciliation
demostrating aggression
reconciliation-avoid physical contact
dominance hierarchies
linear/complex
who is boss?
territoriality
to leave a mark/pee/scratch nails
mating behavior
lek: males getting together
parental care
territorial
marine
territorial: females
marine: males
waggle dances
honey bees, show where food is; workers are sterile, their role is to find food/nurture larvae
pheremones
scent markers, territoriality
chemical cues-ants-trail of scent cue
stalk-eyed fly
very vulnerable to predators, so must be sexual selsection
reciprocal altruism
remember who took a cost for you; repaying the favor--occurs more often in humans
T/F Tool use is unique to humans
FALSE
Which of the following involves learning?
A) Imprinting
B) Operant conditioning
C) Habituation
D) A and B
E) All of the above
all of the above
Which of the following is a mode of communication in animals?
A)Visual
B)Audio
C)Electricity
D)A and B
E) All of the above
all of the above
Ultra/infrasound
ultrasound-bats; high frequency we cant hear
infrasound-elephants; low frequency we cant hear
definition of a population
group of interbreeding individuals of the same species
census
total number of individuals in a population
mark-and-recapture
collect some sample of population, mark, release, measure what proportion you get back was marked
clumped
clumped resources
uniform
competition/bird spacing
random
uniform resources
fine grained
almost uniform
coarse
more clumped
birth rate
fecudity
birth rate-input of individuals
fecundity-relative reproductive rate
generation time
time from birth to reproduction
sex ration
proportion of males to females
sometimes skewed
cohort
age grouping
limited resources
competition for food, space, mate, sun
trade offs
high reproductive effort, but limit survival
finite amount of energy for your lifespan
semelparity/iteroparity
semelparity-only one chance to reproduce, boom bust
iteroparity-reproductive rate uniform across lifespan
big-bang reproduction
found in desert/tundra because variable environment
age at first reproduction (cheaters)
fish: cheaters look like females, but are males--sneak in and mate with females
r vs k selected
r-intrinsic rate of increase-flies
k- carrying capacity-us
intra/interspecific competition
control population growht rate
predation/cycles
interrupt population stability
biotic/abiotic
abiotic-temperature, moisture, sun
biotic-preditors, competitors, parasites
Which of the following distribution patterns describes the self-spacing pattern of birds on a telephone line?
Clumped
Random
Uniform
Uniform
T/F Faster generation times tend to be associated with bigger body sizes
FALSE
T/F the human population has been rising exponentially since the time of the black plague
TRUE
wright-subgroups- subpopulations
promotes differentiation
fisher-global population
whole word is a big population
effective population size
breeders (no juveniles, no elderly, no bachelors, no old maids)
hydrological model
OT
upwelling of energy to do fixed action patterns: ie hunt, nest, mate
must respond to stimulus, may have no end result
displacement activity
OT
expending energy for no good purpose (twitching, grooming)
MHC
OT
major histone compatability complex-cheetahs-can put tissue from one cheetah to another and it wont be rejected (high MHC compatabability)
what is an antigen?
OT
foreign body
(ie parasites, viruses, protists, bacteria)
why is there a high level of heterozygosity at MHC loci?
it may be selection for heterozygotes or frequency dependent selection
tundra
OT
permafrost
constant parched
variable frigid
no trees
immunoglobulin
OT
IgM (snowflake)
antibody molecule
(antigen receptor)
draw carrying capacity
OT
x axis: time (generation)
y axis: N
exponential growth, then levels out just under K (carrying capacity)
desert
OT
constant parched
constant hot
low water
boom bust cycles
Coniferous forest
OT
constant dry
variable cold
tundra
OT
constant parched
variable frigid
permafrost
no trees
Deciduous forest
OT
constant moist
moderate warm
angiosperms
rainforest
OT
most speciose environment
boom bust
found in tundra and desert (not exclusively); waiting for correct conditions to pump out gametes (r selected, semilperous-ie frogs)
k-selected
long germination times, big bodies, iteroperous
invasions of zebra mussels (or any species)
OT
ecological-release from predators and competitors, but now exposed to foreign preditors
genetic-founder flush-increase evolutionary flexibility, but also chance of inbreeding (inbreeding depression drives extinction)
T/F birds excrete uric acid
OT
TRUE
Leking
congo dance of males; females decide whos boss-in some zoos, animals can't, so get inbreeding depression
common garden
fitness differences: from environment or genetics?
if transplant and are similar-environment
different-genetics
heat pumps
arteries
OT
oxygen rich blood
antihistamines
OT
histamines kill antigens, stop overreacting to something
what is the purpose of immunization
OT
exposed to antigen (but no disease capability) immune system knows how to attack if it comes back
3 components of blood
OT
white (leucocytes)-have nucleus, involved in immune system
platelets-no nuclei; clotting agents
red (hematocytes/erythiocytes)- involved in oxygen exchange/hemoglobin